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Online Discussion: Tracking new emerging diseases and the next pandemic

auto-immune disease and gut bacteria

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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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    Posted: March 20 2018 at 10:43pm
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180308143102.htm

Bacteria found in the small intestines of mice and humans can travel to other organs and trigger an autoimmune response, according to a new Yale study. The researchers also found that the autoimmune reaction can be suppressed with an antibiotic or vaccine designed to target the bacteria, they said.

The findings, published in Science, suggest promising new approaches for treating chronic autoimmune conditions, including systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease, the researchers said.

Gut bacteria have been linked to a range of diseases, including autoimmune conditions characterized by immune system attack of healthy tissue. To shed light on this link, a Yale research team focused on Enterococcus gallinarum, a bacterium they discovered is able to spontaneously "translocate" outside of the gut to lymph nodes, the liver, and spleen.

In models of genetically susceptible mice, the researchers observed that in tissues outside the gut, E. gallinarum initiated the production of auto-antibodies and inflammation -- hallmarks of the autoimmune response. They confirmed the same mechanism of inflammation in cultured liver cells of healthy people, and the presence of this bacterium in livers of patients with autoimmune disease.

Through further experiments, the research team found that they could suppress autoimmunity in mice with an antibiotic or a vaccine aimed at E. gallinarum. With either approach, the researchers were able to suppress growth of the bacterium in the tissues and blunt its effects on the immune system.

"When we blocked the pathway leading to inflammation, we could reverse the effect of this bug on autoimmunity," said senior author Martin Kriegel, M.D.

"The vaccine against E. gallinarum was a specific approach, as vaccinations against other bacteria we investigated did not prevent mortality and autoimmunity," he noted. The vaccine was delivered through injection in muscle to avoid targeting other bacteria that reside in the gut.

While Kriegel and his colleagues plan further research on E. gallinarum and its mechanisms, the findings have relevance for systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease, they said.

"Treatment with an antibiotic and other approaches such as vaccination are promising ways to improve the lives of patients with autoimmune disease," he said.



Que sera, sera, Whatever will be, will be, The future is not ours to see, Que sera, sera !
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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 20 2018 at 10:48pm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmune_disease#Signs_and_symptoms

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.[1] There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases.[1] Nearly any body part can be involved.[3] Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired.[1] Often symptoms come and go.[1]

The cause is generally unknown.[3] Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus run in families, and certain cases may be triggered by infections or other environmental factors.[1] Some common diseases that are generally considered autoimmune include celiac diseasediabetes mellitus type 1Graves' diseaseinflammatory bowel diseasemultiple sclerosispsoriasisrheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1][4] The diagnosis can be difficult to determine.[1]

Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition.[1] Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and immunosuppressants are often used.[1] Intravenous Immunoglobulin may also occasionally be used.[2] While treatment usually improves symptoms they do not typically cure the disease.[1]

About 24 million (7%) people in the United States are affected by an autoimmune disease.[1][3] Women are more commonly affected than men.[1] Often they start during adulthood.[1] The first autoimmune diseases were described in the early 1900s.[5]


Autoimmune diseases have a wide variety of different effects. They do tend to have one of three characteristic pathological effects which characterize them as autoimmune diseases:[8]

  1. Damage to or destruction of tissues
  2. Altered organ growth
  3. Altered organ function

It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the leading causes of death among women in the United States in all age groups up to 65 years.[9]

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening.[citation needed]

There are more than 80 illnesses caused by autoimmunity.[10]

Que sera, sera, Whatever will be, will be, The future is not ours to see, Que sera, sera !
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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 20 2018 at 10:58pm
DJ-Chronic Fatigue Syndrome also auto-immune disease (80% of patients female)


Researchers at National Jewish Health have identified a trigger for autoimmune diseases such as lupus, Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis. The findings, published in the April 2017 issue of Journal of Clinical Investigation, help explain why women suffer autoimmune disease more frequently than men, and suggest a therapeutic target to prevent autoimmune disease in humans.

"Our findings confirm that Age-associated B Cells (ABCs) drive autoimmune disease," said Kira Rubtsova, PhD, an instructor in biomedical science at National Jewish Health. "We demonstrated that the transcription factor T-bet inside B cells causes ABCs to develop. When we deleted T-bet inside B cells, mice prone to develop autoimmune disease remained healthy. We believe the same process occurs in humans with autoimmune disease, more often in elderly women."

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks and destroys the organs and tissue of its own host. Dozens of autoimmune diseases afflict millions of people in the United States. Several autoimmune diseases, including lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis strike women two to 10 times as often as men. Overall, about 80 percent of autoimmune patients are women. There is no cure for autoimmune disease.

B cells are important players in autoimmune disease. The National Jewish Health research team, led by Chair of Biomedical Science Philippa Marrack, PhD, previously identified a subset of B cells that accumulate in autoimmune patients, autoimmune and elderly female mice. They named the cells Age-associated B cells, or ABCs. Subsequent research showed that the transcription factor T-bet plays a crucial role in the appearance of ABC.

Transcription factors bind to DNA inside cells and drive the expression of one or several genes. Researchers believe that T-bet appears inside cells when a combination of receptors on B-cell surfaces -- TLR7, Interferon-gamma and the B-cell receptor -- are stimulated.

Through breeding and genetic techniques the research team eliminated the ability of autoimmune-prone mice to express T-bet inside their B cells. As a result, ABCs did not appear and the mice remained healthy. Kidney damage appeared in 80 percent of mice with T-bet in the B cells and in only 20 percent of T-bet-deficient mice. Seventy-five percent of mice with T-bet in their B cells died by 12 months, while 90 percent of T-bet-deficient mice survived 12 months.

"Our findings for the first time show that ABCs are not only associated with autoimmune disease, but actually drive it," said Dr. Rubtsova.

ABCs have attracted increasing interests since their discovery in 2011. Dr. Rubtsova and her colleagues at National Jewish Health have expanded their study of ABCs beyond autoimmune disease and are looking at their involvement in sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and chronic beryllium disease.



Que sera, sera, Whatever will be, will be, The future is not ours to see, Que sera, sera !
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