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Online Discussion: Tracking new emerging diseases and the next pandemic

Ebola Again

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 08 2018 at 2:51am
Not a lot of real information seems to be coming out of the DRC at the moment.  But, at least, the health messages seem to be getting through.]

Church in Congo suspends sacraments during Ebola outbreak

Jun 7, 2018

CATHOLIC NEWS SERVICE


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 08 2018 at 3:49pm

'Strong progress' in calming Congo Ebola outbreak: WHO

9 Jun, 2018 4:45am

DAKAR, Senegal (AP) — "Strong progress" has been made in calming Congo's deadly Ebola outbreak in a city of 1.2 million and in the rural outpost where the epidemic was declared one month ago, the World Health Organization said Friday, but now the focus turns to "some of the most remote territory on Earth."

Health officials expressed cautious optimism as the pace of new cases has slowed. Congo's health ministry late Thursday announced a new confirmed Ebola case, bringing the total to 38, including 13 deaths.

The new case is in the remote Iboko health zone in Congo's northwest. Health workers also have been chasing contacts of those infected in Mbandaka city, a provincial capital on the heavily traveled Congo River, and in Bikoro town where the outbreak was declared.

While Ebola's spread to a major city has complicated efforts to track all contacts of those infected, the presence of the virus in Iboko poses another world of problems.

The forested terrain is so rough that even four-wheel-drive vehicles can't reach the area, which has no electricity, WHO's emergency response chief Peter Salama told reporters in Geneva. Motorcycles are only now arriving and health workers are sleeping 15 to 20 people to a tent.

"This is a major logistical and boots-on-the-ground epidemiological endeavor now," Salama said, adding that work there will go on for weeks.

WHO has vaccinated more than 1,000 people over the past two weeks in all areas of the outbreak, including health workers who are at high risk. The virus spreads via bodily fluids of infected people, including the dead.

"There's been very strong progress in the outbreak response, particularly in relation to two of three sites," Salama said. "Phase one, to protect urban centers and towns, has gone well and we can be cautiously optimistic."

He warned, however, that experts are not in a position to document all chains of transmission of the virus, so "there may still yet be unknown chains out there and there may still be surprises in this outbreak."

This is Congo's ninth Ebola outbreak since 1976, when the hemorrhagic fever was first identified.

WHO said it is supporting emergency response and preparedness efforts by nine neighboring countries. Republic of Congo and Central African Republic are closest to the outbreak and are highest priority, but Congo is also bordered by Angola, Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

WHO says the Ebola response will cost more than $15.5 million over nine months.

Source:   https://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=12067268

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 09 2018 at 2:37am

Congo Ebola outbreak: WHO records 62 cases, 27 deaths



NEW YORK - World Health Organisation (WHO) experts said they have recorded 62 Ebola cases in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during this latest outbreak, with 38 confirmations and 27 deaths.

Deputy Director-General for Emergency Preparedness and Response of WHO, Dr Peter Salama reported in Geneva that “very strong progress” in response to the Ebola outbreak in the DRC, one month after the start of the diseases.

He said that the first phase – protecting urban centres and towns – “has gone well, and we can be cautiously optimistic.”

“There have been 62 Ebola cases in the DRC during this latest outbreak, with 38 confirmations and 27 deaths.

“The latest case, confirmed on Thursday, was in the remote Iboko health zone in the northwest, an indication that the outbreak is ongoing, he said.

Salama, who just returned from a two-day visit to the DRC said: “There’s been very strong progress in the outbreak response, particularly in relation to two of the initial three sites: Mbandaka and Bikoro”.

Mbandaka, in northwest DRC, has a population of around one million,and it is the capital of Equateur province, where the small town of Bikoro also is located.

“We’re cautiously optimistic but there’s a lot of very tough work to do in phase two before we say that we’re on the top of this outbreak and we’ve learned the hard way in the past never to underestimate Ebola,” Salama said.

He said the focus now was on rural isolated communities in the Iboko health zone which would present logistical and other challenges.

Salama described it as among the most remote territory on Earth, mainly inhabited by indigenous populations, while WHO currently has 80 staff in the area.

“We’re talking about an enormous logistical effort required to reach every alert of a case. And then if there is a confirmation of a case, every contact of those cases,” he explained. (NAN)


Source:  https://www.enca.com/africa/congo-ebola-outbreak-who-records-62-cases-27-deaths

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 11 2018 at 11:48am
In tracking filovirus reservoirs, fruit bats have been implicated for ebola, though apparently no virus has yet been isolated. Since VSV-EBOV is based on VSV, and VSV-Indiana was originally isolated from a cow in July of 1925, the Salmonella connection to Mbandaka links US and UK. Salmonella has been isolated from fruit bats in India: Pteropus.

Salmonella mbandaka
' A single isolate of S. mbandaka exhibted multidrug resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin....'

UK / Cattle / Animal Feed
'....We show that UK isolates of S. mbandaka is comprised of one of clonal lineage which is adapted to proficient utilisation of metabolites from soya beans under ambient conditions.'

This links to Australia, for the progenitor plant which is ancestor to the soybean:

Novel RNA Viruses Within Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193881
'....SCN (soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines) NLV and BLV are negative-sense RNA viruses....An additional viral genome was identified from Globodera pallida (potato cyst nematode). The virus is a picorna-like virus, a positive-sense virus.'

This links to polio (picornavirus) vaccinations at Mbandaka (formerly Coquilhatville). 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 12 2018 at 1:59pm
If ebola is vectored by fruit bats, though no virus has yet to be found infecting them, then bat flies are suspect. Nipah virus infects Eidolon dupreanum, though E. helvum is infected by Lagos bat virus, which is the link to HIV-2.

'No. 73  Lagos Bat Virus

Isolated by L.R. Boulger, Lagos, Nigeria.

Time of Collection: Feb 1956

Susceptibility to Experimental Infection:  Monkey (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus), 5th passage, no evidence of infection.'
(Catalogue of Arboviruses of the World)

Just as HIV-2 does not affect sooty mangabeys, Lagos bat virus (Rhabdoviridae) does not seem to affect other mangabeys such as C. torquatus.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 13 2018 at 9:36am

Democratic Republic of Congo: Ebola Virus Disease - External Situation Report 10

Report
from World Health Organization
Published on 12 Jun 2018 

1. Situation Update

The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo remains active. One month into the response, there is cautious optimism about the situation in Bikoro and Wangata (especially Mbandaka) health zones where the last confirmed EVD case was reported on 16 May 2018. The primary focus of the response has moved from the urban areas of Equateur Province to the most remote and hard-to-reach places in Itipo and the greater Iboko Health Zone.

On 10 June 2018, two new suspected EVD cases were reported in Iboko Health Zone. Thirteen laboratory specimens (from suspected cases reported previously) tested negative. No new confirmed EVD cases and no new deaths have been reported on the reporting date. Since 17 May 2018, no new confirmed EVD cases have been reported in Bikoro and Wangata health zones, while the last confirmed case was reported in Iboko Health Zone on 2 June 2018.

Since the beginning of the outbreak (on 4 April 2018), a total of 55 EVD cases and 28 deaths (case fatality rate 50.9%) have been reported, as of 10 June 2018. Of the 55 cases, 38 have been laboratory confirmed, 14 are probable (deaths for which it was not possible to collect laboratory specimens for testing) and three are suspected. Of the confirmed and probable cases, 27 (52%) are from Iboko, followed by 21 (40%) from Bikoro and four (8%) from Wangata health zones. A total of five healthcare workers have been affected, with four confirmed cases and two deaths.

The outbreak has remained localised to the three health zones initially affected: Iboko (24 confirmed cases, 3 probable, 2 suspected, 7 deaths), Bikoro (10 confirmed cases, 11 probable, 1 suspected, 18 deaths) and Wangata (4 confirmed cases, 3 deaths).

The number of contacts requiring follow-up is progressively decreasing with many completing the required follow-up period. As of 10 June 2018, a total of 634 contacts were under follow up, of which 633 (99.8%) were reached on the reporting date.

Context

On 8 May 2018, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified WHO of an EVD outbreak in Bikoro Health Zone, Equateur Province. The event was initially reported on 3 May 2018 by the Provincial Health Division of Equateur when a cluster of 21 cases of an undiagnosed illness, involving 17 community deaths, occurred in Ikoko-Impenge health area. A team from the Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), visited Ikoko-Impenge health area on 5 May 2018 and found five case-patients, two of whom were admitted in Bikoro General Hospital and three were in the health centre in Ikoko-Impenge. Samples were taken from each of the five cases and sent for analysis at the Institute National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), Kinshasa on 6 May 2018. Of these, two tested positive for Ebola virus, Zaire ebolavirus species, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 7 May 2018, and theoutbreak was officially declared on 8 May 2018. The index case in this outbreak has not yet been identified and epidemiologic investigations are ongoing, including laboratory testing.

This is the ninth EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over the last four decades, with the most recent one occurring in May 2017.

Source:   https://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/democratic-republic-congo-ebola-virus-disease-external-situation-8
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 13 2018 at 1:30pm
There seems no published reports of fruit-bat eating habits in the areas of interest for this latest outbreak. Feline immunodeficiency virus links to big cats and jungle cats such as leopards, linking "cat scratch fever" (Bartonella) to Nipah virus (Paramyxoviridae) and fruit bats:

Exposure to Bat-Associated Bartonella
'....128,000 bats on average, are hunted for food yearly in southern Ghana alone. Serologic evidence of human infections with novel paramyxoviruses from Eidolon helvum supports concerns regarding this contact.'

During rubber-exploiting years in the Congo, the workers slept in wooden cages constructed from available materials, which were not always effective against leopards. Thomas Duncan's ebola med, brincidofovir, is the ether lipid analogue of cidofovir. Cidofovir potently inhibits cytomegalovirus. Congo chevrotain (Tragulus) mothers teach their young to eat the twigs of Pycnanthus, which anti-cytomegalovirus compounds include dihydroguaiaretic acid.

(Hungary, 2010) Dihydroguaiaretic Acid / CMV


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 13 2018 at 2:32pm
CMV-Based Ebola Vaccine
(Hamilton, Montana; Devon, UK; Braunschwieg, Germany; Riverside, California; Portland, Oregon)

The chevrotainian "ghost sequence" from Pycnanthus (Myristaceae) is the signal for myristoylation, Gly-Ala-Gly-X-Ser, linking poliovirus and rhinovirus inhibitors:

(May 2018) Poliovirus/Rhinovirus Inhibitors

(1988) Anti-HIV-1 / Myristoylation
'....inhibited the myristoylation of the proteolytic cleavage of the gag-coded polyprotein Pr53gag to p24 but did not affect the processing of gp160.'

'p. 728:  At some time in late 1959 or early 1960, a (polio vaccination) campaign was staged at the large town of Coquilhatville ("Coq," now Mbandaka) in Equateur Province.

p. 738:  Equally, we know that one of the last campaigns in the Congo, that at Coquilhatville (Mbandaka), the one that Courtois later hoped to have monitored by the CDC, does not correlate with the early spread of HIV-1, for a retrospective test of 250 sera taken from Mbandaka in 1969 revealed no HIV positives.' 
(Hooper, The River: A Journey to the Source of HIV/AIDS)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 14 2018 at 10:22am
VSV-EBOV, a Diptera-based vaccine compares with CMV-based vaccines, because some bat fly parasites are blind. Thus, Iboko, for example, links to CMV retinitis:

Iboko / CMV Retinitis
'....CMV retinitis (6%)....cataract and glaucoma constituted a public health problem in this rural area of Zaire.'

One reason Tragulus mothers teach their young to eat Pycnanthus twigs is here:

(May 2018 India)  Newborn Glaucoma / CMV

Nigeria / CMV Retinitis / HIV-AIDS

Having mentioned the "ghost sequence" for myristoylation, one link to poliovirus and rhinovirus is here:

Anti-Poliovirus N-Myristoylation

Ebola and Marburg are Mononegavirales. Mononegavirales sequences found in the soybean cyst nematode, link the Tragulus-Pycnanthus assemblage:

(2014 Mississippi State University)  Heterodera glycines Myristoylation

Thus, the progenitor of the soybean in Australia may have reacted against a Mononegavirales vector sometime during evolution.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 18 2018 at 9:47am
To help verify that major viruses are involved in the region of the latest ebola outbreak, this report has a map:

WHO Officials Fear Latest Ebola Outbreak in Congo Could Spread to Big Cities
'....or Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, to the north.'

Institute Pasteur, Bangui

Edward Hooper (The River) shows Yaounde, Cameroon on the map but does not mention polio at Quesso, and the WHO does not seem to mention it either, or on the internet. Unfortunately, we no longer have the citation for the polio cases at Quesso. Quesso is on the Sangha River at the southernmost tip of Cameroon, which river borders the area that was the origin of the HIV-O subtype. The Sangha connects the Congo below Mbandaka. Yaounde includes the region for the origin of HIV-1. Many animals from southern and southeastern Cameroon end up at the market in Yaounde.

Congo's Ebola Outbreak Poses Challenges for Bush Meat
'....four years ago....it was widely suspected that the epidemic began when a 2-year-old boy in Guinea was infected by a bat.'
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 18 2018 at 2:24pm

[Although 'contained' is not the same as over, the signs are good it is under control.]


How DRC’s Ebola Outbreak Has Been Contained

The Ebola outbreak in Congo has been closely tracked and, so far, well-contained, in stark contrast to the 2014 West Africa outbreak that killed thousands of people.
By SALEM SOLOMON | June 18, 2018

The Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo appears to be in its waning days. Despite 28 deaths as of early June, health officials are cautiously optimistic that they are bringing the outbreak under control. So far, it’s a striking turnaround from the 2014 West Africa outbreak, which killed more than 11,000 people in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, and traveled as far as Glasgow, Scotland, and Dallas, Texas.

Despite difficult-to-traverse terrain and local communities’ skepticism of health care workers, from the start of the outbreak, officials got in front of the disease and kept it in check. Several factors made the DRC response markedly different than previous outbreaks, saving countless lives.


1. Long distances between villages and an underdeveloped infrastructure slowed the spread of the disease.

The DRC’s remoteness made it difficult for health care workers to access affected communities, but it also impeded the spread of the disease. For the most part, infected individuals did not leave their communities, and outsiders didn’t come in, greatly limiting the number of infections. In contrast, in 2014, at the height of the West Africa epidemic, Ebola spread quickly through densely populated cities.

Source:   https://projects.voanews.com/drc-ebola-outbreak/

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 19 2018 at 9:55am
The paradox in this containment story is that whereas in 2014 the human was vector, in 2018 the ebola reservoir remains at large despite a vaccine, just as it did in 2014. 

Because ebola sequences have been detected in small mammals at Bangui, both polio and HIV coalesce three theories in southeastern Cameroon: SIV-contaminated polio vaccine, SIV-contaminated bush meat, and contaminated reused hypodermic needles for general use).

There is no doubt that polio cases at Quesso are documented, though we cannot retrieve a citation at this time. Quesso is also spelled Ouesso, and a Pubmed search retrieves only one reference:

Ouesso / HIV Subtype Diversity
'....p24 gag....'

Thomas Duncan's ebola med, brincidofovir, is an ether-lipid analogue that reveals clues to its synthesis: myristoylation is also documented for HIV-1. Therefore, whereas myristoylation is a lipidation modification (compared with brincidofovir), sumoylation is a post-translational modification.

Ebola VP40 Sumoylation

Ebola Zaire Sumoylation


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 19 2018 at 1:31pm
Thomas Duncan's ebola meds are based on anti-CMV compounds such as cidofovir, which links to anti-CMV compounds of the Tragulus food, Pycnanthus. Thus chevrotains were eating anti-CMV compounds throughout their evolution.

(2017) CMV Sumoylation-Dependent Post-Translational Modification

Foot-and-mouth disease virus is a Picornavirus, and the chevrotainian "ghost sequence" reveals an antiviral strategy of the Myristaceae:

In summary, FMDV Lpro has evolved to recognize two specific substrates at two different cleavage sites by providing a deep hydrophobic pocket to interact specifically with residues such as leucine at the P2 site, and subsequently modulating the interaction through subtle requirements at the P1 or P1' sites. Would it not have been easier for the FMDV Lpro to have evolved to recognize a unique cleavage site? This would mean cleaving between L and VP4 at a site containing a P1 Gly and a P1' Arg, as found in the cleavage site of of eIF4GI, or cleaving the eIF4GI between a P1 lysine and a P1' Gly, as found in the polyprotein cleavage site.

The first possibility cannot be an option as the N-terminal region of VP4 contains the recognition signal for myristoylation (GlyAlaGlyXSer); any attempt of the virus to introduce basic residues would lead to an inability to myristoylate VP4 and hence a defect in viral replication. The second option does not seem possible either, as the sequence LeuLys*Gly cannot be found in a position that would allow proteolysis to separate the eIF4GI binding domains for eIF4E and eIF4A.'
(Skern T, et al, Structure and Function of Picornavirus Proteinases, in Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses [2002] p. 209)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 20 2018 at 3:18pm
The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story
Book by Richard Preston

12 Monkeys...............
1995 ‧ Science fiction film/Thriller ‧ 2h 11m a must for AFT
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 22 2018 at 10:43am
Ltest: 

Health officials cautiously optimistic dangerous Ebola outbreak is over

June 21, 2018

There is cautious optimism that a dangerous Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is over, the head of the World Health Organization’s emergency response operations said Thursday.

Transmission of the deadly virus appears to have stopped — though it is not yet time to pull back on the response operation, Dr. Peter Salama, deputy director-general for emergency preparedness and response, told STAT.

“Overall I’d be very confident that we’ve broken the back of this outbreak,” Salama said, noting that the WHO will discuss with the DRC government in coming days how long to maintain response operations and when to think about declaring the outbreak over.

While there have been 28 fatalities due to Ebola, there hasn’t been a newly confirmed diagnosis since early June. And while surveillance teams keep finding and testing people who are sick, time and again tests have shown that what ails them is not Ebola.

Typically infectious disease outbreaks are declared over when there hasn’t been a new case for two full incubation periods of the particular disease. Ebola’s incubation period is two to 21 days, so 42 days is the bare minimum. As of Thursday, 19 days had passed without a new case.

But the WHO is likely to be cautious, particularly in light of the West African Ebola outbreak that ran from late 2013 to 2016.

That epidemic appeared to be coming under control in 2015 and 2016, and on several occasions the WHO declared the outbreak over in one of the affected countries. Then a cluster of new cases would be spotted.

Investigation of the new cases brought to light that a phenomenon previously thought to be mainly a theoretical risk: The Ebola virus persisted in some survivors for weeks and in some cases even months — notably in eyeballs and testicles — often reigniting spread of the disease.

Investigations found most of the new cases were linked to sexual contact with a survivor; mother-to-infant transmission via breast milk was seen in one case.

The same kind of risks “mustn’t be underestimated” in the latest outbreak, said Dr. Jeremy Farrar, director of Britain’s Wellcome Trust, one of the first entities to step up to help fund this outbreak response.

“You would hate to declare it over prematurely,” he said, noting that having to unwind operations and rebuild them later would be difficult and would undermine morale.

The use of an experimental Ebola vaccine in the outbreak may diminish the risk of straggler cases, or even sexually transmitted infections from survivors, however.

The vaccine, being developed by Merck, was offered to health care workers as well as the contacts of cases — and their contacts — in what’s called a ring vaccination approach. The idea is to stop spread of the virus by protecting anyone who might be at risk of contracting it.

Acceptance of the vaccine was astonishingly high — almost everyone offered a chance to be vaccinated took it. Salama said in nine of 11 vaccination rings, all the people offered the vaccine agreed to be vaccinated. In the other two rings, 98 percent agreed. “It was really heartening,” he said.

It is too early to say for sure, but Salama believes the vaccination effort helped to contain the outbreak, which involved spread in three locations — the city of Mbandaka, on the Congo River, the town of Bikoro, and the village of Iboko.

“Just eyeballing the data, the fact that these outbreaks really stopped in their tracks … to me is suggestive that the vaccination had some impact,” he said. Salama noted infections dried up despite the fact that contact tracing — finding people who had been exposed to cases to monitor them for signs of Ebola — only really got to high levels late in May. That is about a week after vaccination began in Mbandaka and around the time it started in Bikoro and Iboko.

The outbreak post-mortems will include an effort to explore the question more fully, Salama said. Scientists will look at when contacts of cases were exposed to sick people and then when they were vaccinated to try to discern if the vaccine may have prevented infections.

“We’ll know more on that when we do more modeling post-outbreak with the full data set,” Salama said. “But for the regular transmission, certainly that’s extremely likely. And even [to prevent] sexual transmission, it’s possible.”

None of the experimental Ebola therapies shipped to DRC ended up being used in this outbreak. By the time the country’s scientific and ethics advisory committees had studied the drugs and agreed they would be administered, there were no patients left to treat.

“It is a lost opportunity,” Salama acknowledged.

But he noted that in a small 2017 outbreak in DRC, the same thing happened with a proposal to use the experimental vaccine. The groundwork laid then led to quicker approval of the vaccine this time, he said, and the review of the experimental drugs in this outbreak could speed approvals the next time DRC — on its ninth Ebola outbreak — has to fight this disease. “For next time, I think it will happen much more quickly,” Salama said.





Source:   https://www.statnews.com/2018/06/21/ebola-outbreak-optimism/
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 22 2018 at 12:25pm
We (this writer and many quoted authors) are developing a Japanese alphabet (rather than a syllabary). This alphabet will serve to communicate more efficiently in various languages. An example of translational blunders for ebola reporting is here:

www. for Ebola in America and Other Fake Problems Our Leaders Love to Fight
'In 1972, an American doctor, Thomas Cairns doing missionary work in the Congo, cut himself with a scalpel during an autopsy on a patient who had died of ebola -- a disease yet unknown to medical science. He survived because his wife, even under those conditions, treated him with a basic drip.'

This translation is dubious, because it does not mention bananas. The original Russian written by Yulia Latynina of Novaya Gazeta, states:

'On vyshil.
He survived.

Znaete kak?
Know how?

Pravil'no, ego zhena v krytoi bananovimi list'iami khizine stavila emu samodel'nye kapel'nitsy
Correctly, his wife covered it with banana leaves from the hut (roof) placed into a homemade dropper.'

Similarly, Japanese ebola experts assisted the WHO on 20 separate occasions during the Liberia and Sierra Leone ebola outbreak. This is what one usually sees when visiting the Yomiuri news site:

Yomirui Online

This page is in English:
kyoiku.yomiuri.co.jp/2017.3.15eigo_mondai.pdf
'....ebola....The Tokyo-based center will use drones capable of long distances at high speeds in Zambia....Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd. will provide T-705 or Favipiravir, a medicine which is not yet approved for ebola virus disease treatment.'

Drones should be applicable for vector-reservoir studies as well, and an efficient alphabet (rather than the now-existing Japanese syllabary), will assist in speed and efficiency of communication.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 23 2018 at 1:14am
[Not quite over - but in retreat]

Democratic Republic of Congo: Ebola Virus Disease - External Situation Report 12

Report
from World Health Organization
Published on 22 Jun 2018 View Original

1. Situation Update

The Ministry of Health and WHO continue to closely monitor the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over one month into the response, further spread of EVD has largely been contained. However, in spite of the progress made, there should be no room for laxity and complacency until the outbreak is controlled. The focus of the response remains on intensive surveillance, including active case finding, investigation of suspected cases and alerts and contact tracing.

On 20 June 2018, four new suspected EVD cases were reported in Iboko (2) and Bikoro (2) health zones. Four laboratory specimens (from suspected cases reported previously) tested negative. Since 17 May 2018, no new confirmed EVD cases have been reported in Bikoro and Wangata health zones, while the last confirmed case- patient in Iboko Health Zone developed symptoms on 2 June 2018, was confirmed on 6 June 2018 and died on 9 June 2018.

Since the beginning of the outbreak (on 4 April 2018), a total of 61 EVD cases and 28 deaths have been reported, as of 20 June 2018. Of the 61 cases, 38 have been laboratory confirmed, 14 were probable cases (deaths for which it was not possible to collect laboratory specimens for testing) and nine were suspected cases. Of the 52 confirmed and probable cases, 28 died – giving a case fatality rate of 54%. Twenty-seven (52%) confirmed and probable cases were from Iboko, followed by 21 (40%) from Bikoro and four (8%) from Wangata health zones. Five healthcare workers have been affected, with four confirmed cases and two deaths.

The number of contacts requiring follow-up is progressively decreasing, with a total of 1 527 contacts having completed the mandatory 21-day follow-up period. As of 20 June 2018, 179 contacts were under follow up and all (100%) were reached on the reporting date.

Absence of proof is not proof of absence.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 25 2018 at 9:15am
The ridiculously complex URL for the following report, even when transcribed correctly, still does not work, exemplifying the dangers when communicating during an epidemic. The reader must scroll down to retrieve it:
Healio ITJ in the journals
'....22 Jun 2018 Ebola Flare-Ups in West Africa Linked to 'Persistently' Infected Survivors'

What this means for the DRC is that two species of Marburg virus were circulating there in 2000 and the total deaths form them have never been published. Thus, the first-ever report of filoviruses being sequestered in the sexual glands was from the Marburg case in Kenya in 1980.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 25 2018 at 9:24am
The ebola report for West Africa, above, is not the originally-shown URL.  According to Promedmail, 843 have been vaccinated at Mbandaka (Coquilhatville), 779 at Bikoro, 1518 at Iboko, 107 at Ingende, and 21 at Kinshasa. There are polio and HIV/AIDS links to Mbandaka and Kinshasa.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MikeL Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: June 26 2018 at 10:36am
For polio and ebola vaccination histories at Mbandaka, the link is to Niemann-Pick which is also the link to Koprowski's oral polio vaccine and Poland, as well as cerebral spinal fluid taken from chimpanzees at Lindi Camp. Both polio and Niemann-Pick are mentioned in this report:

(1973) Poland / Polio / Niemann-Pick

Niemann-Pick Type C1 is Critical for Ebola Virus Entry
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