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Monkeypox Outbreak in Nigeria

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    Posted: October 05 2017 at 1:15pm

Monkey pox outbreak reported in Nigeria’s Bayelsa

  •  October 05, 2017 to 17:55
Details available on wikipedia:   https:///en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkeypox





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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 10 2017 at 9:26am
METRO

Monkeypox: 12 things you must know about deadly disease



Monkeypox is a rare and infectious disease caused by monkey virus, transmitted from animals to human, with symptoms similar to those of smallpox, although less severe.

The first case was reported on September 22 in Bayelsa, and according to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), 31 suspected cases have been reported across seven states including Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun and Cross River.

To stay safe from this disease that has no known cure or vaccine, 12 things are important to note.

1. Monkeypox occurs sporadically in some remote parts of central and West Africa. It was first discovered in monkeys hence the name, monkeypox.

2. The disease was first identified in 1958 by the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, during an investigation into a pox-like disease among monkeys.

3. The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of intensified effort to eliminate smallpox.

4. The infection can be contracted from direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals like monkeys, Gambian giant rats, squirrels, and rodents. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is a possible risk factor.

5. The symptoms of monkeypox are similar to but milder than the symptoms of smallpox. Monkeypox begins with fever, headache, muscle aches, chills, and exhaustion. The main difference between symptoms of smallpox and monkeypox is that monkeypox causes lymph nodes to swell while smallpox does not. The incubation period (time from infection to symptoms) for monkeypox is usually 7-14 days but can range from 5−21 days. Within the first three days or more, after the appearance of fever, the patient develops a rash, often beginning on the face then spreading to other parts of the body.

6. Secondary, or human-to-human, transmission can result from close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or objects recently contaminated by patient fluids or lesion materials.

7. Monkeypox can be transmitted from human to human through physical touch, contact with stool, blood contact. Avoid contact with animals that could harbour the virus (including animals that are sick or that have been found dead in areas where monkeypox occurs).

8. Practice good hand hygiene with or without contact with infected animals or humans. Wash your hands regularly with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

9. Avoid contact with any materials, such as bedding, that has been in contact with a sick animal or person. Isolate infected patients from others who could be at risk for infection.

10. Vaccination against smallpox has been proven to be 85% effective in preventing monkeypox in the past but the vaccine is no longer available to the public after it was discontinued following global smallpox eradication in 1980.

11. Monkeypox has been shown to cause death in about as 10 percent of those who contract the disease. Children are more susceptible to the infection.

12. There is presently no known or proven, safe treatment for monkeypox virus infection.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 10 2017 at 9:28am
Originally posted by Technophobe Technophobe wrote:

METRO

Monkeypox: 12 things you must know about deadly disease



Monkeypox is a rare and infectious disease caused by monkey virus, transmitted from animals to human, with symptoms similar to those of smallpox, although less severe.

The first case was reported on September 22 in Bayelsa, and according to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), 31 suspected cases have been reported across seven states including Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun and Cross River.

To stay safe from this disease that has no known cure or vaccine, 12 things are important to note.

1. Monkeypox occurs sporadically in some remote parts of central and West Africa. It was first discovered in monkeys hence the name, monkeypox.

2. The disease was first identified in 1958 by the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, during an investigation into a pox-like disease among monkeys.

3. The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of intensified effort to eliminate smallpox.

4. The infection can be contracted from direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals like monkeys, Gambian giant rats, squirrels, and rodents. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is a possible risk factor.

5. The symptoms of monkeypox are similar to but milder than the symptoms of smallpox. Monkeypox begins with fever, headache, muscle aches, chills, and exhaustion. The main difference between symptoms of smallpox and monkeypox is that monkeypox causes lymph nodes to swell while smallpox does not. The incubation period (time from infection to symptoms) for monkeypox is usually 7-14 days but can range from 5−21 days. Within the first three days or more, after the appearance of fever, the patient develops a rash, often beginning on the face then spreading to other parts of the body.

6. Secondary, or human-to-human, transmission can result from close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or objects recently contaminated by patient fluids or lesion materials.

7. Monkeypox can be transmitted from human to human through physical touch, contact with stool, blood contact. Avoid contact with animals that could harbour the virus (including animals that are sick or that have been found dead in areas where monkeypox occurs).

8. Practice good hand hygiene with or without contact with infected animals or humans. Wash your hands regularly with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

9. Avoid contact with any materials, such as bedding, that has been in contact with a sick animal or person. Isolate infected patients from others who could be at risk for infection.

10. Vaccination against smallpox has been proven to be 85% effective in preventing monkeypox in the past but the vaccine is no longer available to the public after it was discontinued following global smallpox eradication in 1980.

11. Monkeypox has been shown to cause death in about as 10 percent of those who contract the disease. Children are more susceptible to the infection.

12. There is presently no known or proven, safe treatment for monkeypox virus infection.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote CRS, DrPH Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 10 2017 at 7:01pm
Not mentioned....monkeypox is on the federal list of "select" agents, i.e. possible bioweapon material. 



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 12 2017 at 7:54am
Nah, Chuck!  It can't be that bad.  Faith alone can protect you...........................................................

Monkey pox: Gov. Okorocha gives reasons virus will never enter Imo

Published

 

on

 

The Imo State Governor Chief Rochas Okorocha has stated that because the state is in the hands of God, the Monkey Pox virus will never come close.

Okorocha said this in a statement by his Chief Press Secretary, Sam Onwuemeodo where he denied claims that the virus was in the state.

The virus which started from Bayelsa State, has spread to other states in the country since last week it was first discovered.

Okorocha said, “The Attention of the Imo State government has been drawn to the wicked and unfounded rumor being spread by the wicked ones over the monkey pox virus which created undue anxiety in Owerri, the state capital especially among some parents, on Wednesday, October 11, 2017.

“The State government wants to inform Imo people in particular and the general public that the monkey pox virus is not in Imo and will never be in Imo in Jesus Name.

“The federal Government has named few states that have had one or two cases and the states that should be monitored closely and Imo State is not among any of the groups. So these wicked rumor mongers in the state will surely reap the ugly fruits of their ugly acts.

“Again, no child or pupil or student has been immunized or is being immunized as part of the rumour had carried, because there is no need for such action.

“However, the government is on the alert and will take the necessary action if the need arises and Imo people will duly be informed. But for now, there is no cause for any alarm. Imo is in the hand of God.”


I don't know about anyone else, but that level of complacency terrifies me.


Source:   http://dailypost.ng/2017/10/11/monkey-pox-gov-okorocha-gives-reasons-virus-will-never-enter-imo/

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 15 2017 at 5:28am
The return of monkey pox, ailment that has no cure, 39 years after 

ON OCTOBER 15, 2017 6:08 AMIN HEALTH, NEWS, SPECIAL REPORTCOMMENTS By Sola Ogundipe 

History

The current suspected monkey pox outbreak in Nigeria, which has now spread to seven states, is the third in the nation’s history. There were a total of three recorded human cases previously  in 1971 and 1978 according to the Centres for Disease Control, CDC. The virus was first isolated from colonies of monkeys kept for research, hence the name “monkey pox.” 

The first recorded human case of monkey pox was in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of intensified effort to eliminate smallpox. There were also reports of cases in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The following year, 1971, there was one case in Cote d’Ivoire and two cases in Nigeria. Then in 1976 there were two cases in Cameroon and again in Nigeria, in 1978, one case was recorded. 

Since then, monkey pox has remained strictly a disease of Central and Western African countries, except in 2003, when 47 cases were reported in the US. The 2003 US outbreak is the only time monkey pox infections in humans were documented outside of Africa.   Most of those affected had close contact with pet prairie dogs believed to have had contact with animals that were imported. 

The current outbreak in Nigeria is of West African origin and associated with milder disease, fewer deaths, and limited human-to-human transmission. Studies have shown that the monkey pox virus can cause a fatal illness in humans and, although it is similar to human smallpox which has been eradicated, it is much milder. A professor of virology and former President, Nigeria Academy of Science, Professor Oyewale Tomori, described as a shame Nigeria’s inability to diagnose monkey pox. Tomori, who spoke to Sunday Vanguard from the US, remarked: “It is indeed a shame for us in this country that, nearly 60 years after our so called independence, we are still unable to confirm a case of most diseases without sending our samples to laboratories overseas. “And which overseas, are we talking about. Senegal! Just imagine. And there was a time when our laboratory system was able to confirm many of these diseases, now, none of these diseases are we able to confirm. “We do not have appropriate and well equipped laboratory facilities to definitely confirm suspected cases. Samples have been sent to Dakar and plans are being made to send additional samples to the smallpox laboratories of the WHO Collaborating Center for Smallpox and other Poxvirus Infections at the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta”. 

Causes 

Monkey pox is a rare disease caused by infection with monkey pox virus, that belongs to the same family of viruses that includes variola virus (the cause of smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus. The natural reservoir remains unknown. However, African rodent species are expected to play a role in transmission. The monkey pox virus can cause an illness with a generalised vesicular skin rash, fever, and painful jaw swelling. In previous outbreaks, it has led to death in about 1-10 per cent of infected cases. There is no specific medicine to treat the disease, but intensive supportive care helps patients to recover fully. 

Confirmation of suspected cases We do not have appropriate and well equipped laboratory facilities to definitely confirm suspected cases. Samples have been sent to Dakar and plans are being made to send additional samples to the smallpox laboratories of the WHO Collaborating Center for Smallpox and other Poxvirus Infections at the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta. 

Rapid spread

 I think it is too early to say  that we are having a rapid spread of the disease as we do not have laboratory confirmation of the reported cases from different states. However, this is not to say that the disease cannot be spread easily, especially from an infected person. 

Largest outbreak 

The largest outbreak ever reported in Africa was the 1996 DR Congo outbreak, with more than 70 cases. The outbreak lasted for a period of one year. During the outbreak, there was a significant association of human contacts with squirrel (trapping, preparing raw meat for cooking) and human-to-human transmission through direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected persons. In Africa, there are reports of human infections associated with handling of infected monkeys, Gambian giant rats and squirrels, with rodents being the major reservoir of the virus. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is a possible risk factor. Cause for concern  There is definitely a danger and cause for concern, as between 1- 10 percent of people infected with monkeypox may die, most deaths occurring in younger age groups. 

However, we need to confirm the cases before we think of declaring a national emergency. If we have to declare an emergency at all, it is to declare emergency for the poor state of national health. Otherwise, we will be declaring emergencies for every outbreak. And we have many in our country- Lassa, Meningitis and pardon me, and the most severe and devastating disease – corruption. There is no cure  In as much as the government has taken appropriate steps and measures – alerting citizens, calling for calm, sending samples for laboratory testing, contacting international agencies for assistance- our national response is adequate. 

Treatment

Unfortunately, there is no cure for the disease, although it is known that people who have received smallpox vaccine suffer a mild form of the disease. But remember smallpox vaccination was stopped in the 1980s, so should people born after that time contract the disease, they are likely to suffer a severe form. What to do to prevent infection  First is to prevent transmission from animal to man through contact with any of the animals listed as natural hosts of the virus – monkeys, rodents, rats, squirrels etc. Those handling sick animals, raw or infected tissues, must wear gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. We must thoroughly cook all animal products (blood, meat) before eating. During a monkey pox outbreak, we must avoid close and direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of an infected person. Since there is neither a vaccine nor a specific treatment for the disease, you need to raise awareness of the risk factors and educate people about the measures that must be taken to reduce exposure to the virus. Also upgrade our surveillance for the disease to rapidly identify new cases and isolate them. We must implement standard infection control in our health facilities, while providing our health workers with gloves and protective equipment when taking care of ill people. We cannot over stress the need for regular hand washing, especially after caring for or visiting sick people. Finally, we must keep our environment clean and free from invasion by rats and rodents.   

What you should know about monkeypox October 9, 2017 

Monkey Pox spreads to 7 states; 2 cases in Lagos October 10, 2017 

Just in: Monkey pox reportedly hits Lagos, two cases recorded October 9, 2017 

Read more at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/return-monkey-pox-ailment-no-cure-39-years/


I have tried to edit the above article for clarity.  I have not changed any of the facts reported - Technophobe
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