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Online Discussion: Tracking new emerging diseases and the next pandemic.

SECONDARY PNEUMONIA FROM SEVERE FLU

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    Posted: January 05 2006 at 7:41pm
IMPORTANT TOPIC!
  
GETTING THE PNEUMONIA VACCINATION MAY SAVE LIVES IN A FLU PANDEMIC:
 
GETTING THE PNEUMONIA VACCINATION AHEAD OF TIME - BEFORE A PANDEMIC BEGINS - IS THE BEST WAY TO SURVIVE.
 
As with any strain of flu, secondary "complications" to the flu can be lethal.  The primary lethal complication is when a bacterial pneumonia infection develops . It's the secondary pneumonia that actually kills.  Therefore, if you can keep the secondary pneumonia from developing, then although you still may get sick in a flu pandemic, you won't die.   

There are two ways to prevent the lethal pneumonia. You can either purchase antibiotics in advance as they will not be available during a pandemic, or you can simply get a pneumonia vaccination. People need to strongly encourage their friends and families to get the vaccination.  During the Flu pandemic of 1918, the initial vaccine used was a pneumonia vaccination.

 
GOOD ARTICLE TO READ ON RECENT FINDINGS:
 
 
ScienceDaily (Oct. 11, 2007)  Often called the most devastating epidemic in the recorded history of the world, the 1918 influenza virus pandemic was responsible for more than 40 million deaths across the globe. The incredible lethality of the 1918 flu strain is not well understood, despite having been under intense scrutiny for many years. Now, a new study published by Cell Press in the October issue of the journal Cell Host & Microbe unravels some of the mystery surrounding the devastating 1918 pandemic and provides key information that will help prepare for future pandemics.
 

It is relatively rare for an influenza virus to be virulent enough to cause death in healthy humans. Many deaths associated with influenza are caused by the combined influence of viral disease and the following secondary bacterial infection. Although the 1918 pandemic strain was one of the few influenza viruses capable of killing healthy victims on its own, the majority of fatal cases from the "Spanish Flu" can be attributed to secondary bacterial pathogens rather than primary viral disease. This important interaction between influenza viruses and bacteria is not well understood.

Dr. Jonathan A. McCullers from the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee and colleagues examined this interaction by studying a newly discovered influenza A virus (IAV) protein, called PB1-F2. The gene encoding PB1-F2 is present in nearly all IAVs, including highly pathogenic avian IAVs that have infected humans and the IAV associated with the 1918 pandemic. "PB1-F2 was recently shown to enhance viral pathogenicity in a mouse infection model, raising questions about its effects on the secondary bacterial infections associated with high levels of influenza morbidity and mortality," explains Dr. McCullers.

The researchers found that expression of PB1-F2 increased the incidence of and exacerbated secondary bacterial pneumonia in a mouse model. Intranasal delivery of a synthetic peptide derived from a portion of PB1-F2 had the same effects. Further, an influenza virus engineered to express a version of PB1-F2 identical to that in the 1918 pandemic strain was more virulent in mice and led to more severe bacterial pneumonia, explaining in part both the unparalleled virulence of the 1918 strain and the high incidence of fatal pneumonia during the pandemic.

The finding that PB1-F2 promotes lung pathology in primary viral infection and secondary bacterial infection also provides critical information for the future. "Given the importance of IAV as a leading cause of virus-induced morbidity and mortality year in and year out, and its potential to kill tens of millions in the inevitable pandemic that may have its genesis in the viruses currently circulating in southeast Asia, it is imperative to understand the role of PB1-F2 in IAV pathogenicity in humans and animals," says Dr. McCullers. "These findings also reinforce the recent suggestion of the American Society for Microbiology that nations should stockpile antibiotics for the next pandemic, since many of the deaths during this event are likely to be caused by bacterial super-infections."

Reference: McAuley et al.: "Expression of the 1918 Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Enhances the Pathogenesis of Viral and Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia." Publishing in Cell Host & Microbe 2, 240--249, October 2007. DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2007.09.001 

The researchers include Julie L. McAuley of Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis; Felicita Hornung of Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda; Kelli L. Boyd of Animal Resources Center, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis; Amber M. Smith of Department of Mathematics, University of Utah in Salt Lake City; Raelene McKeon of Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis; Jack Bennink and Jonathan W. Yewdell of Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda; and Jonathan A. McCullers of Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis.

This work was supported by the NIH the NIAID intramural research program, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC).

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071010120543.htm

 
 
 
ANOTHER INTERESTING ARTICLE: 
 
 
 
Pneumococcal vaccine urged in flu pandemic plan
 
MONTREAL -- U.S. plans for an influenza virus pandemic should include a strong recommendation for bacterial pneumonia vaccination, as this measure has been shown to reduce influenza mortality by up to 50%, said Dr. Keith Klugman.

"Among the 18 fundamental points in the U.S. pandemic plan, there is little mention of bacterial vaccines. I believe their role is significant and has not been considered up until now," he said at an international conference on community-acquired pneumonia.

Although the influenza virus alone can be fatal, the risk of death is greater with secondary pneumococcal infection, said Dr. Klugman, professor of infectious diseases and the William H. Foege Chair of Global Health at Emory University, Atlanta.

"The combination of bacterial superinfection and influenza is highly fatal. It's a huge problem, and it's not a small part of influenza mortality and morbidity," he said in an interview.

Evidence that pneumococcal infection played a major role in the 1918 influenza pandemic "'is substantial, but seems to have been forgotten," Dr. Klugman recently wrote in a letter to the editor (Science 2007;316:49-50).

He cited historical evidence of culturable pneumococci in the blood of at least half of the survivors and victims of influenza in two studies (Br. Med. J. 1919; 1:3-5; JAMA 1918;71:1735).

And a randomized, controlled trial by Dr. Klugman and his colleagues has shown that, in children, vaccination against the pneumococcal bacteria results in a 31% decrease in pneumonias associated with respiratory viruses (Nat. Med. 2004; 10:811-3).

"Because of the vaccine, they are not getting the superinfection that brings them to the hospital," he said at the meeting, which was sponsored by the International Society of Chemotherapy. "I think people have known for years that there can be bacterial superinfections with influenza, but they just didn't realize how common they were and how much of a role they play."

The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPM 23) is currently recommended in adults older than 65 years, but giving the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 7) to children is more protective against bacterial pneumonia in the adult population, he said.

Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that adult infections with the seven pneumococcal strains covered in the children's vaccine have decreased, while infections from the other 16 strains covered by the adult vaccine have increased.

"The burden of disease in adults has been impacted more by giving the conjugate vaccine to children than by giving the 23-valent vaccine to adults," Dr. Klugman said.

This has led some investigators to ask whether adults might benefit by being immunized using the children's conjugate vaccine. (See box, "Giving Adults the Children's Conjugate Vaccine May Backfire, Researchers Say".)

Also, a new study (Lancet 2007;369:1179-86) offers the first evidence that vaccinating children protects adults against all pneumococcal pneumonia, not just bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, he said.

Improving pneumococcal vaccine coverage in children could result in major reductions in infection across all ages, he said.

"Only about 60% of kids currently get the full four doses of the conjugate vaccine, and it's that fourth dose that induces the full immunity and stops transmission, so we need to do a much better job of immunizing kids."

REALTED ARTICLE: Giving adults the children's conjugate vaccine may backfire, researchers say.

Is there a role for giving the children's conjugate vaccine to adults?

A recent study suggested that it may not be as simple as that (Vaccine 2007;25:4029-37). Immunogenicity among elderly patients (aged 70-79 years) who were given the children's dose of conjugate vaccine was "nothing to get overly excited about," Dr. Klugman said. "Perhaps the dose designed for a primary response in kids is not enough for adults," he suggested.

And a study presented at the 2006 International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases by Dr. Andres de Roux, of the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and colleagues suggested that the administration of the children's conjugate vaccine to elderly patients within 1 year of giving them the polysaccharide vaccine could actually suppress immunity.

"It seems the adult vaccine interferes with the response to the conjugate, which is a concern, because it means we can't simply give the conjugate to people who have previously had the [23-valent vaccine]. There will have to be a strategy, and it seems that certainly the conjugate needs to be given before the 23-valent," Dr. Klugman said.

Dr. Klugman said that in his opinion, a new conjugate vaccine, with coverage of more strains than the current one, will eventually replace the PPV 23 for adults.

ARTICLES BY KATE JOHNSON

http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/167306371.html

 
 
 
 
 




    
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 05 2006 at 8:10pm
We all have ours!  $60.00 a pop but 2 of our 4 insurances actually paid for them so it was only $120.00 total...the bargain of the year as far as I'm concerned.
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I got a booster shot last week. (Free under my health plan, Pacific Care)

I started getting the pneumonia shot about 20 years ago.  When the immunity conferred starts to wear off, I get another shot. 

Almost died as a child from pneumonia and as an adult, when the immunity wears off, I start to get chest congestion and colds.  A week after getting the shot, all colds and chest problems go away for years. It works for me.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote AuntBones Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 06 2006 at 5:29am
Last week I went to my doctor's office, nurse gave me my vaccine.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote libbyalex Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 06 2006 at 5:47am
Got my pneumonia vaccine a few weeks ago. Unfortunately, spouse and 3 year old DS haven't been able to get one. -- Libby
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It sounds like there are a lot of people that are going to get their pneumonia vaccinations this week.  Lets hope this list grows this week!   Everybody needs to get their pneumonia vax right now - And then confirm that you received it by posting the news on this thread.

Here is why...

As we know, once you get the this flu, the secondary bacterial pneumonia sets in within 48 hours.  So it's actually the bacterial  pneumonia that kills.  Therefore, if you can hold off the pneumonia from developing, you will live!

Here is where it gets interesting .... did you know that the primary components of the original Spanish Flu vaccine was actually a simple  pneomonia vaccination?  Again, although they would still get the flu, they wouldn't die.  What this means is that if you go get a pneumonia vaccination today, you and your family will most likely survive. 

Please folks .... this is a no brainer .... if you want to survive this super plague I would strongly suggest getting a pneumonia vaccination today.   You owe it to your families to do this, IMO.    Don't gamble with their lives and get this done!

Here is what I'm talking about....

"Among the few successful medicines doctors used during the Spanish flu were privately made vaccines for bacterial pneumonia. Today we have something called the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. One injection protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria for a lifetime, so you don't have to wait until you're ill or even until there's a pandemic to be inoculated. Bacteria never develop resistance against it, as they do with antibiotics, and it will provide protection against any strain of flu, be it human or avian. A computer model in the Netherlands found that giving this vaccine to just 17 percent of the population prevented 3.5 percent of expected deaths directly and fully a fourth of all hospitalizations. Beds would be scarce during any pandemic and freeing them up would translate into better care for the sick and even more lives saved. "

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Marjo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 9:15am
Hi,

I made an appointment for next monday (couldn't get it sooner ).

When I called they asked which kind of pneumo vaccination I wanted...
Are different kinds??? Which one should I ask for?

Marjo,
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Hi Marjo.

This is the one you want.

pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

Tell them that it's the one that protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria.   I Believe it's the standard one these days, but make sure tell them it's for 23 types.  

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Also, once you get your vaccination, please come back here and post it on this thread to confirm it.  We're trying to see how long we can get this thread with vaccination confirmations LOL.    

We will be watching on Monday

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote mountain Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 11:08am
i walked into a clinic and got mine on 23 dec 05, $35.00 in vegas
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Marjo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 12:25pm
Hi Albert,

thanks for the info!
I'll make sure to get the right one


Marjo,
The Netherlands


Originally posted by Albert Albert wrote:

Hi Marjo.

This is the one you want.

pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

Tell them that it's the one that protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria.   I Believe it's the standard one these days, but make sure tell them it's for 23 types.  


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote meewee Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 3:14pm

Just got back from getting mine!  Cost $30.00 What a relief!

Meewee

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Good job Meewee!   

Mountain, you're on top of this thingt!   Glad to hear you got it done early! 

 



Edited by Albert
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote meewee Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 3:23pm

 TY TY TYVM ! I feel much better now Albert!

Meewee

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 3:32pm

I think $30.00 is the cheapest yet.  I hold the record for the most expensiive one.  Mine was $119.00.  And then I took my wife and brother to the same clinic and theirs were $70.00?  I didn't say anything....

I'm not sure if anyone can beat $30.00, except possibly "concerned" or "IdahoGirl".  They work in healthcare .... 

 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote meewee Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 3:40pm

Used to work in the health care industry and now work for the school district in the cafeteria. Doc knows how prone I am to pneumonia and has been pestering me for years to get one...Only got the courage now thanks to you and this web-site Albert!

Meewee

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 5:13pm

hubby and i are getting ours on thursday at the department of health for $35.00 each.  no appointment needed and age not a factor - they don't even want identification - just the $$$$$

 

kathie

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 5:25pm

I go to get my shot in the next couple of days! I do want to clarify that there is bacteria and viral Pneumonia. I will be using the VA and my husbands insurance, so it costs me nothing.

 

I have included in order of concern:

 

Complicated Influenza

•         Primary viral pneumonia

•         Secondary bacterial pneumonia

•         Bacterial sinusitis

•         Myositis

•         Myocarditis / pericarditis

•         Guillian-Barre syndrome

•         Reye’s Syndrome

 

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Originally posted by KillerFlu.net KillerFlu.net wrote:

I go to get my shot in the next couple of days! I do want to clarify that there is bacteria and viral Pneumonia.

 

Killer,

Is there a vaccine for Viral Pneumonia?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 10 2006 at 10:00pm

It's the secondary pneumonia that we have to be careful of in this case.  

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