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Online Discussion: Tracking new emerging diseases and the next pandemic

Trackng the Ukraine D225G Bloody Lung mutation

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    Posted: November 24 2009 at 12:25pm

Tuesday, 24. November 2009, 19:47:44

Slovakia, dangers of swine flu, epidemic, disease ...

November 22, 6:13 PMLA Health Technology ExaminerVictoria Nicks

According to analysis of genetic testing done by the World Health Organization, the Ukraine flu virus is an H1N1 mutation that is similar to the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic. The two flu virus outbreaks both have changes in the receptor binding domain D225G, and similar symptoms, which include bleeding in the lungs. Current estimates of the deaths attributed to the Ukraine flu outbreak is as many as 400, and increasing daily.

comment: this is not to say this is the last take on this pathogen-but the similarity to the 1918 strain makes it more likely to be a problem than it has been so far.

John Bell- CEO Crystalware Defense - Medical and Technology Research
aka Medclinician author of Pandemic Now Survival Guide

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Research

1918 Influenza Pandemic Caused by Highly Conserved Viruses with Two Receptor-Binding Variants

Ann H. Reid,* Thomas A. Janczewski,* Raina M. Lourens,* Alex J. Elliot,† Rod S. Daniels,† Colin L. Berry,‡ John S. Oxford,‡§ and Jeffery K. Taubenberger*
*Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, Maryland, USA; †National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom; ‡Queen Mary’s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom; and §Retroscreen Virology, Ltd., London, United Kingdom

Suggested citation for this article: Reid AH, Janczewski TA, Raina M. Lourens RM, Elliot AJ, Rod S, et al. 1918 Influenza pandemic caused by highly conserved viruses with two receptor-binding variants. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Oct [date cited]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no10/02-0789.htm


The Spanish influenza pandemic swept the globe in the autumn and winter of 1918-19, and resulted in the deaths of approximately 40 million people. Clinically, epidemiologically, and pathologically, the disease was remarkably uniform, which suggests that similar viruses were causing disease around the world. To assess the homogeneity of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, partial hemagglutinin gene sequences have been determined for five cases, including two newly identified samples from London, United Kingdom. The strains show 98.9% to 99.8% nucleotide sequence identity. One of the few differences between the strains maps to the receptor-binding site of hemagglutinin, suggesting that two receptor-binding configurations were co-circulating during the pandemic. The results suggest that in the early stages of an influenza A pandemic, mutations that occur during replication do not become fixed so that a uniform “consensus” strain circulates for some time.

The 1918–19 influenza pandemic began, in some parts of the world, with mild outbreaks in the spring of 1918. In the fall of that year, a lethal wave swept the globe. Outbreaks occurred in early September in North America, Europe, and Africa and spread rapidly, so that the disease had peaked and declined worldwide by the end of December (1–4). Many areas had an additional wave of the disease in the early months of 1919. In most communities, the fall wave of the pandemic lasted approximately l month, with 25% to 30% of the population experiencing symptomatic disease. Clinically, epidemiologically, and pathologically, the disease was remarkably uniform, suggesting that similar viruses were causing disease worldwide (5). To assess the homogeneity of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences were determined for strains from five cases, including two newly identified samples from London, United Kingdom. The strains show 98.9% to 99.8% nucleotide sequence identity. One of the few differences between the strains maps to the receptor-binding site of HA, which suggests that two receptor-binding configurations were co-circulating during the pandemic.

Influenza A virus is capable of rapid genetic change in mammals (6–8). Its polymerase complex lacks proofreading capability, such that one in five virus particles produced is likely to contain a change at one of its approximately 13,500 nt (9). If such a change provides the virus with a competitive advantage, that strain quickly replaces its predecessor. In humans, the need to escape preexisting immunity exerts positive selection pressure on changes in amino acids comprising the antigenic sites of the surface glycoproteins, HA and neuraminidase (NA) (6,10). The process of progressive change in the antigenic properties of the virus is called antigenic drift and results in the emergence of an antigenically distinct variant strain every 2–3 years. Between drift epidemics, the influenza virus appears to be antigenically uniform (11), but the degree of genetic uniformity has not been studied extensively.

In pandemic influenza, one or both of the virus’s surface proteins are replaced with proteins to which the human population has no preexisting immunity (6,12). The virus then spreads explosively, producing symptomatic infection in up to one third of most populations. During the rapid initial spread of a pandemic strain, little antigenic pressure on the virus exists. One might expect the genetic structure under these circumstances to be relatively constant. However, the degree of genetic identity among viral isolates during a pandemic is not known. Very few full-length HA sequences of viruses from the peaks of the 1957 and 1968 pandemics are available, and all of these viruses had been grown at least once in eggs before sequencing—a process that can select for an unpredictable number of sequence changes (13,14). Therefore, this study represents an initial attempt to measure the degree of genetic homogeneity of a pandemic virus. Since the sequences have been obtained directly from clinical material, they contain no sequence changes attributable to culture.

Materials and Methods

Patients and Samples

The genetic sequences encoding the HA1 domains of three 1918 influenza strains have been determined (15,16). Two of the strains came from U.S. soldiers who died on September 26, 1918: one in Camp Upton, New York, and one in Fort Jackson, South Carolina. The third came from an Inuit woman who died in mid-November 1918 in a remote village on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska.

To obtain further samples for analysis, we examined autopsy material of 14 patients who died in the fall and winter of 1918 to 1919. The material consisted of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, stained slides, and clinical records from the files of the Morbid Anatomy Department of the Royal London Hospital. The cases were preselected by histologic criteria for further analysis, and samples were taken from patients who died from acute influenza after clinical courses of <1 week (16–18). Of these 14 lung samples, 4 were positive for influenza RNA on subsequent molecular genetic analysis, but only 2 had sufficient material for HA1 sequencing. The first patient was a 50-year-old woman admitted to the hospital on November 12, 1918, with influenza and pneumonia. She died on November 13. The postmortem diagnosis was bronchopneumonia. The second patient was a 25-year-old man admitted to the hospital on February 13, 1919. He died on February 15 of influenza. The postmortem diagnosis was lobar pneumonia with toxemia.

Methods

Sample preparation, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing were performed as described previously (15). (Primers used are available upon request.) PCR was performed from at least two separate reverse transcription reactions, and products from at least two PCR reactions were sequenced in each case to ensure accuracy and exclude amplification artifacts. Sequences used to evaluate the complexity of pandemic and epidemic influenza strains were obtained from the Influenza Sequence Database (available from: URL: http://www.flu.lanl.gov/).

Results

Figure
Figure.

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Figure. Partial HA1 domain cDNA sequences from five 1918-19 cases...

The 563-bp fragments sequenced for this study, encoding the antigenic and receptor-binding sites of the HA1 domain (19–21), represent the most variable portion of the influenza genome (Figure). The London cases were designated A/London/1/1918 (H1N1) and A/London/1/1919 (H1N1). These two sequences, when compared to the three previously sequenced North American strains (15), differ from each other by 1 nt to 3 nt, showing a sequence identity of 98.9% to 99.8%.

A/London/1/1918 shows 2 nt differences, compared to A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, one of which would change the amino acid at codon 188 from G to S (amino acid numbering is aligned to the H3 influenza HA). This residue is near several of the residues that have been shown experimentally to affect receptor-binding specificity of H1 HAs (21–23) and next to one of the mapped Sb antigenic site residues (19,20). A/London/1/1919 shows 3 nt differences from A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, 2 of which are nonsynonymous, resulting in changes of V223I and D225G. The V223I change is near Ca antigenic site residues, and the D225G change is at a residue that functions both in receptor-binding and as a Ca antigenic site residue. Amino acid 225 also varies among North American strains; A/New York/1/1918, like A/London/1/1919, has a glycine at position 225, as do most avian influenza strains. A/South Carolina/1/1918 and A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, like A/London/1/1918 and most subsequent human H1 strains, have aspartic acid at this position (Figure) (15). The relative genetic homogeneity of the 1918–19 isolates encouraged us to analyze sequences from the 1957 and 1968 pandemics.

GenBank contains complete HA1 domain–encoding sequences for eight 1957 H2N2 strains. As noted in previous studies of receptor-binding specificity (22,24), the 1957 strains have undergone varying passage histories, but all have been passed at least once. Three of the strains have been sequenced more than once and differ by as many as 8 nt within the same strain. Between sequences, the number of nucleotide differences ranges from only 1 nt difference between A/Chile/6/1957 and A/Davis/1/1957 to 12 differences between one of the A/Japan/305/1957 sequences and one of the A/Singapore/1/1957 sequences. Overall, the sequences show 98.9% to 99.9% identity at the nucleotide level, and 98.5% to 100% identity at the amino acid level.

More limited sequence data are available for the 1968 H3N2 pandemic strains. The complete HA1 domain sequence is available for only three strains, two of which have been sequenced twice each. The two A/NT/60/68/29C sequences differ by 4 nt. The most divergent sequences differ by 24 nt (A/NT/60/68/29C vs. A/Hong Kong/1/68), thus showing 97.6% to 100% identity between sequences at the nucleotide level, and 96.0% to 100% identity at the amino acid level.

Studies from epidemic years have yielded similar results. A 2001 study (25) examined variation in the HA gene of human H3N2 viruses in Spain from 1996 to 2000. During this time, strains antigenically similar to A/Wuhan/359/1995 were replaced by strains similar to A/Sydney/5/1997 and then by strains similar to A/Panama/2007/1999. Within the groups of viruses belonging to each antigenic group, sequence variation was minimal. For example, among the viruses that reacted antigenically with Sydney, but not Panama and Wuhan, 2–10 nt differences occurred over the 591 nt sequenced (98.3% to 99.7% identity).

An unpublished study provides sequences of the HA1 domain of the H3-subtype HA of 16 A/Sydney/05/1997-like (H3N2) influenza virus isolates circulating in Canada during the 1997/98 influenza epidemic season (GenBank no. AF087700–AF087702, AF087707, AF087708, AF096306–AF096316) (26). Two of the isolates had identical sequences, while the others varied by 1 nt to 14 nt over 981 nt (98.6% to 100% identity).

Discussion

The three North American 1918 influenza strains sequenced previously were isolated from patients separated by nearly 2 months in time and almost 4,000 miles in distance (27). Two nucleotide differences were found among these three strains, one of which resulted in an amino acid substitution in the receptor-binding site (15). All three cases likely derived from the initial introduction of the fall wave into the United States, believed to have occurred in Boston in early September 1918. The virus then spread rapidly from Camp Devens, Massachusetts, the first U.S. army base to experience the epidemic, which then reached army bases throughout the eastern United States within 2 weeks (2). Influenza probably reached Brevig Mission, Alaska, via Seattle, Washington. The pandemic reached Camp Lewis, Washington, in mid-September, following the arrival of a troop ship from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1,2), and spread to Seattle by late September. After careful screening to exclude sick passengers, a ship left Seattle for Nome, Alaska, in mid-October, but days after its arrival local residents began falling ill (1). An account of the pandemic as it occurred in Brevig Mission reports that visitors from Nome brought the disease to the village in November (28). This chain of events suggests that the Alaskan outbreak was not the result of a separate introduction of the 1918 influenza from Asia to the West Coast of the United States.

The spring wave of the 1918 epidemic was widespread in France and Spain during April and May but did not reach England until June. The fall wave also arrived somewhat later in England than in continental Europe and the United States; peak mortality in London occurred during the first 2 weeks of November (2). A second peak occurred in the third week of February 1919. One strain from each of these peaks was sequenced for this study.

Our results show that strains separated by over 7,500 miles (Brevig Mission, Alaska, to London, United Kingdom) and several months (September 26, 1918, to February 15, 1919) share a sequence identity of 99%. This level of genetic homogeneity is slightly higher than that seen for the available 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains, but the 1957 and 1968 strains were not sequenced directly from clinical material. Sequences from different passages of the same strain were sometimes as different from each other as they were from other strains (29), suggesting that sequence heterogeneity observed was the result of culture adaptation, making it impossible to determine how homogeneous the pandemic viruses actually were. Even so, the 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains show >97% identity between strains. Similar levels of genetic homogeneity were seen in strains from case-patients isolated from a drift epidemic in 1997. Thus, influenza viruses circulating during a single outbreak, whether epidemic or pandemic, show levels of sequence identity consistent with the uniformity of the 1918 cases.

Despite the uniformity of the 1918 strains, one of the variable sites is an amino acid known to be important in receptor binding (21). At a subset of amino acids critical for receptor binding, avian strains differ from swine H1s at only one amino acid, E190D (15). At these amino acids, two of the cases (A/New York/1/1918 and A/London/1/1919) are identical to that of A/sw/Iowa/1976/31 (a classical swine strain). The other 1918 cases have an additional change from the avian consensus at amino acid 225. Since swine viruses with the same receptor site as A/sw/Iowa/1976/31 bind both SAa2,3Gal and SAa2,6Gal (14), A/New York/1/1918 and A/London/1/1919 probably also had the capacity to bind both receptors. Because two of five 1918-19 analyzed fall wave strains from case-patients have the swine-like receptor-binding pattern, the E190D change alone is apparently sufficient to allow viral replication in the human respiratory tract. However, the existence of three strains with the additional G225D change shows that both receptor-binding variants were co-circulating throughout the pandemic. The current evidence does not suggest progression from one receptor-binding pattern to the other during the pandemic, since the two variants are present, on both continents, both early and late in the pandemic. Since residue 225 has also been identified as part of the Ca antigenic site (19), the co-circulating strains possibly differed in antigenic reactivity as well as receptor-binding characteristics.

This study is the first to examine the genetic homogeneity of a pandemic influenza virus directly from clinical material. The results suggest that in the early stages of a pandemic, mutations that occur during replication do not become fixed so that a uniform consensus strain circulates for some time. Studies of influenza strains circulating after 1919 should provide insight into how pandemic viruses evolve after the initial waves through immunologically vulnerable populations. In terms of pandemic planning, our results indicate that a specific antiviral drug or vaccine would have a uniform effect during the important and often lethal first wave of a pandemic (30,31).

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI50619-01) to J.K.T. and by the intramural funds of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. J.S.O., C.L.B., and R.S.D. gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Wellcome Trust and the Ian Heap fund.

Ms. Reid is a research biologist in the Molecular Pathology Division at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Her principal research interest is pandemic influenza.

 
"In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act."   G Orwell
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technologist Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 25 2009 at 7:15am
China reports 8 cases of swine flu mutation


By GILLIAN WONG (AP) 3 hours ago
BEIJING China has detected eight cases of swine flu mutation, a health official said Wednesday, amid longstanding concerns among scientists that the virus could change into a more dangerous form.
Last week, the World Health Organization said it was investigating samples of variant swine flu linked to two deaths in Norway.


But Shu Yuelong, director of the Chinese National Influenza Center, told the official Xinhua News Agency that the mutated swine flu virus found China has shown an "isolated" spread in the mainland, is not resistant to drugs and can be prevented by vaccines.


The report did not provide any more details, such as when the cases were detected and if they were linked to any deaths. Calls to the National Influenza Center rang unanswered while the Health Ministry did not immediately respond to a faxed list of questions.

Swine flu has triggered a global pandemic, and scientists are worried that swine flu could mutate into a more dangerous or more infectious form or swap genes with seasonal or other types of flu.
On Friday, the WHO said it was looking into two deaths and one severe case linked to variant swine flu in Norway, after that country's Institute of Public Health announced that the mutation could possibly cause more severe disease because it infects tissue deeper in the airway than usual.
The same mutation has been found in both fatal and mild cases elsewhere, including in Brazil, Japan, Mexico, Ukraine, and the United States, said the WHO.
WHO's spokeswoman in Beijing, Vivian Tan, said the agency is aware of three such cases in China that occurred in June and July that were similar to the cases being investigated in Norway. Tan said WHO had no information on the cases mentioned in the Xinhua report Wednesday.

There is no evidence the mutated swine flu virus is circulating widely in the world, Tan said, but since it has been linked to deaths in Norway and elsewhere, investigators are focusing on whether this mutation could be a marker for more severe disease.

"We are concerned, but realize that influenza viruses, including A/H1N1, are relatively unstable and change easily, especially as they infect more people," Tan told The Associated Press. "Some mutations can have minimal effects on how a virus functions, while other mutations can create important changes with significant public health impact."
China's Health Ministry said Wednesday that 51 swine flu deaths were reported last week, bringing the total number of fatalities in the country to 104.

http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5h2RvxZISRaAf9N1waUNDVrzs7FhgD9C6HR901
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mary008 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 25 2009 at 8:01am
China has amazingly low fatalities..  doing very well so far.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mahshadin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 25 2009 at 8:54am
Brazil
Japan
Mexico
Ukraine
United States
China
 
Same mutaion in vastly different locations around the globe. Does that sound like random events to anyone?
 
I think the offical (Random Events) theory needs to be challenged scientifically.
 
And another thought, why did we not here about the US mutations until after the fact.
 
this is unacceptable (Time to get rid of the PR people who are restricting the information based on what they feel the public needs to know)
 
Honesty is the best policy (Period) (No Debate)
"In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act."   G Orwell
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mary008 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 25 2009 at 9:24am
And another thought, why did we not here about the US mutations until after the fact.
................................................
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hi..  the various strains are no secret... they are there on the internet.  No, they were not in the ... Popular Press.   I'm remembering all the blather from W.H.O. on how the Public needs information and honesty at all times.  We have to expect to see the changes in strains all over the globe due to civil transport.  It doesn't take that long for viruses to travel the globe.   The reason they say the vaccine will hold is due to the fact that the really nasty parts of the virus are in the vaccine.   :/       and the live mist will get it around pretty good.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mahshadin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 25 2009 at 9:29am
Mary008
 
Really, I think someone would have caught that (D225G) had it been released (US).
 
Do you have the link with date posted???
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mary008 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 30 2009 at 8:23am
 
 
hiya Mahs... Yes It was up... I had it on the Ukraine thread  (but Albert tossed the whole thread, not sure why he would do that?)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote endman Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 02 2009 at 12:02pm
 
Influenza A H1N1: What is going on? 
Front page / World / Europe
01.12.2009 Source:        
 
 
Pages: 12
 
Deadly mutations reported in Ukraine. Reports of thousands of people lying dead in quarantined areas cordoned off by the Government. Autopsy report: “The lungs are as black as charcoal. They look like they have been burnt. It’s terrifying”. WHO confirms the virus is mutating. Where is the story in the international media and what is going on?

 
 
 
 
 
 BREAKING NEWS
 
 Russia vs. USA: Who wins the space exploration race? 
 
 

 
 
It is understandable that at a time when a pandemic like A H1N1 sweeps the globe, there exist both under-reporting in the media, creating a sense of well-being, fuelled by public opinion which has decided “Swine Flu” is a fancy name for seasonal flu and the mortality rate is wholly within the norm – and over-reporting of rumours, such as the unconfirmed reports in Western Ukraine of thousands of bodies lying around with their lungs burnt in cordoned-off areas.

Alarming development

However, a closer examination of the facts point towards an alarming development which has not been picked up by the mainstream media: a mutation of H1N1 into something far more sinister, a parallel to Spanish Flu which killed between 50 and 70 million people between 1919 and 1920, in which the victim dies due to the total destruction of the lungs.

Professor Victor Bachinsky, Head of the Chernivtsi regional forensic bureau, declared in an interview with Anna Yashchenko* that 22 victims in Bukovina died as a result of viral distress syndrome, i.e. the total destruction of the lungs. This declaration would back up the anonymous claim by another western Ukrainian doctor, who claimed that “The lungs are as black as charcoal. They look like they have been burnt. It’s terrifying”.

For Professor Bachinsky, “This is a viral attack that destroys the lungs…Once the virus enters the lungs, haemorrhaging begins immediately in the acinus”. What kills the patients in Ukraine is not pneumonia, but cardiogenic shock. After the haemorrhaging starts, fibrin is formed in the blood and this in turn gives rise to the creation of a giolinovaya membrane, which envelops the acinus in the lungs and the oxygen people breathe in is not transferred to the tissues. There ensues cardio-pulmonary insufficiency and the patient suffocates.

WHO confirms mutation

The World Health Organization has confirmed that the same mutation in H1N1 has occurred in Ukraine and Norway, while there have been reports of the same mutation having been observed in two states in the USA, Iowa and North Carolina – and in Hong Kong, the Department of Health has recorded a similar situation. In Iowa, Dr. Gregory Schmunk told KCCI news that a number of cases of “haemorrhagic lungs, with a lot of blood in them” had been reported in H1N1 patients.

What is happening?
 
Influenza A H1N1: What is going on? 
Front page / World / Europe
01.12.2009 Source:        
 
 
Pages: 12
 
As with the New York variant to 1918 HA, fatal cases of A H1N1 in Brazil, Ukraine and Norway contained a change in receptor specificity for D225G. The virus is mutating, it is becoming more virulent and the cause of death is horrific. If, as some virologists fear, this easily-transmissible H1N1 strain manages to link up with the lethal H5N1 avian flu, the world is once again facing a clinical catastrophe of unprecedented proportions – just as H1N1 sweeps across the world, H5N1 is emerging in Egypt, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam.

  
  
 
 
 
 
The WHO has confirmed over 500.000 cases of H1N1 with 7.000 deaths. However, experts in the field affirm that the real figure is far higher. In Europe, the number of deaths has doubled fortnightly since mid-October. Mutations found as far apart as the USA, Canada and Wales have been reported as resistant to Tamiflu (oseltamivir), while scientists in Britain have declared that the vaccine for H1N1 would probably be ineffective against the strain found in Ukraine.

What to do?

A mask provides 30% protection against the virus, wearing glasses a further 10%. Disinfecting all surfaces with alcohol-based gel, washing the hands regularly and rubbing them with gel after touching surfaces such as taps and keyboards, and remembering never to touch the mouth, nose or eyes, will increase the chances of preventing the virus from entering the body. Boosting the immune system by eating garlic, ginger root, fruit and vegetables also increases the chances of successfully fighting off the disease.

What people should not do is self-medicate, especially with anti-biotics, which apart from being totally ineffective, reduce the immune system and render the host more vulnerable.

*Original in www.unian.net/rus/news/news-346721.html

Source: www.russiansentry.com

Timothy BANCROFT-HINCHEY

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Albert Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 03 2009 at 5:35am
Originally posted by Mary008 Mary008 wrote:

 
 (but Albert tossed the whole thread, not sure why he would do that?)
 
I didn't remove the thread.  I simply removed the sticky topic.  Scroll down the News Forum until you find it Mary?  You little news hound....   Wink
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote mysty Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 03 2009 at 11:32am
Mutations in the USA

so last week I saw 4 in NC , 3 of which died. And a couple in Iowa. Now they are reporting Maryland and an increase in numbers. WHO confirmed this is the one that is Tamiflu resistant and that it has changed too much for the vaccine to prevent it. I finally found a paper that seems interested in reporting. Ill pop some links below. The infected numbers are still small. From those six or so to 96 reported. Lets just hope it doesnt spread the way it did overseas.

WHO swine flu update: Tamiflu-resistant (H275Y) cases of H1N1 flu have nearly doubled in two weeks


http://www.examiner.com/x-29228-LA-Health-Technology-Examiner~y2009m12d2-WHO-swine-flu-update-Tamifluresistant-H275Y-cases-of-H1N1-flu-have-nearly-doubled-in-two-weeks


Swine flu vaccine ineffective against low reactor H1N1 influenza virus found in Ukraine flu outbreak

http://www.examiner.com/examiner/x-29228-LA-Health-Technology-Examiner~y2009m11d29-Swine-flu-vaccine-ineffective-against-low-reactor-H1N1-influenza-virus-found-in-Ukraine-flu-outbreak

At the bottom of these articles are links to more. It looks like they are devoting some time to this issue finally.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mary008 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 03 2009 at 12:59pm
Thank you :)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Wishbone Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 03 2009 at 3:41pm
Originally posted by endman endman wrote:

 
Influenza A H1N1: What is going on? 
Front page / World / Europe
01.12.2009 Source:        
 
 
Pages: 12   
  
 BREAKING NEWS
 
 Russia vs. USA: Who wins the space exploration race? 
 

For Professor Bachinsky, “This is a viral attack that destroys the lungs…Once the virus enters the lungs, haemorrhaging begins immediately in the acinus”. What kills the patients in Ukraine is not pneumonia, but cardiogenic shock. After the haemorrhaging starts, fibrin is formed in the blood and this in turn gives rise to the creation of a giolinovaya membrane, which envelops the acinus in the lungs and the oxygen people breathe in is not transferred to the tissues. There ensues cardio-pulmonary insufficiency and the patient suffocates.

 
I was wondering why an army over there was being given onions to ward off the flu.
It might be to try to stop the formation of fibrin in the blood. I hope it works.
 
Found this:
(There must be some studies done somewhere on onions/fibrin, but I don't have the time to look anything up now.)
 
 

Onion Effects on Cholesterol

It is well known that increasing one's consumption of a wide range of vegetables has a fountain of youth effect on health. Each of these veggies has a strong point, and the humble onion's special power lies in cardiovascular support. As well as being a rich source of anti-inflammatory sulfur compounds, insulin-controlling chromium, and osteoporosis-preventing GPCS, the onion has been scientifically shown to significantly lower cholesterol. 

    Significance

  1. A component of onion breaks down fibrin, a clotting factor in the blood.

    Considerations

  2. A1975 study found that the portion of the onion directly responsible for the reduction of cholesterol in the body is in the vegetable's essential oil.

    Misconceptions

  3. Cooked onion, habitually consumed, is just as effective as raw onion at lowering cholesterol--perhaps because it's much easier to stick to.

    Warning

  4. Some studies conducted used amounts of fresh onion that could be considered unacceptably high in a person's everyday diet.

    Fun Fact

  5. One study showed that the consumption of one half of a raw onion raised "good" cholesterol (high density lipoproteins, or HDL) by 30 percent.
 
(I read years ago, somewhere, maybe in one of Jean Carper's books , that the small yellow onion is the most medicinal. 1/2 onion a day. Not to overdo it, because the blood can get too thin after a couple of weeks of too much onion daily.)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technologist Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 03 2009 at 8:41pm
Originally posted by endman endman wrote:


Influenza A H1N1: What is going on? Front page / World / Europe 01.12.2009 Source:    Pages: 12 Deadly mutations reported in Ukraine. Reports of thousands of people lying dead in quarantined areas cordoned off by the Government. Autopsy report: The lungs are as black as charcoal. They look like they have been burnt. It terrifying WHO confirms the virus is mutating. W



That story sounds exactly like the early November story we debunked last month. I didn't check the links but the wording sounds exactly the same. When I have time I'll check to see if it's the same story reprinted a month later.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Medclinician Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 04 2009 at 4:28am
Originally posted by Technologist Technologist wrote:

Originally posted by endman endman wrote:


Influenza A H1N1: What is going on? Front page / World / Europe 01.12.2009 Source:    Pages: 12 Deadly mutations reported in Ukraine. Reports of thousands of people lying dead in quarantined areas cordoned off by the Government. Autopsy report: The lungs are as black as charcoal. They look like they have been burnt. It terrifying WHO confirms the virus is mutating. W



That story sounds exactly like the early November story we debunked last month. I didn't check the links but the wording sounds exactly the same. When I have time I'll check to see if it's the same story reprinted a month later.


Tech- I have no doubt you have a stash of Relenza and you have debunked nothing. That is the purity of your posts - almost no relevant information verus personal attacks on me and my family. This has been your MO- crime stopper since we began this dance and it will be until you are either in a safe haven with your friends with people on the surface dying who actually listened to you and did not prepare.

Almost zip Tech for a Tech. Didn't you read Dr. Webster, Lancet, and over a thousand references I have quoted that are not taboid, but many that are rock solid science? Obviously not.

We have been setting up sanctuary- so its been busy. You have nothing to post but main stream misinformation garbage. And heavily sedated propaganda from Google which is in bed with .gov. You realize people are not comatose.

You are the primary force on this site and if you don't own it, you might as well.

And this is not personal Tech. I have been at this medical thing a lifetime. I know my stuff.
Start posting like you know yours. Science. Stop attacking posts and put up something that is not rewarmed garbage to sedate the masses.

Not only are you not going to save any lives, you are going to cost a lot of people theirs who listen to you say there is no problem.

I have some time today to go back and grab more data- to make some global phone calls and play catch up. Thanks to the posters who are contributing real and useful tracking of what is really the Third Wave in the U.S.

The virus has mutated so some is resistant to Relenza.. and because of the mutation- you have yet to post a single viable piece of data that the vaccine even works period. Your comment was.. well can you prove it doesn't.

Whatever you are being paid by whoever is not enough for the lives that will be lost by trying to keep the public in the dark.

We will continue to track this- either here or whatever we need to.

What happens will happen. And you will be explaining to the bodies on the ground that they have nothing to worry about.

John Bell- CEO Crystalware Defense - Medical and Technology Research
aka Medclinician author of Pandemic Now Survival Guide
PI Synchro-Phaser Data Compression Project as per SP Initiative.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Medclinician Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 04 2009 at 4:38am
And now the data

Genetic mutation of H1N1 flu found in China
(Xinhua)
Updated: 2009-11-26 02:47
< ="text/" ="" ="http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/js/08tools_e_1.js">

BEIJING: Genetic mutation had been detected in eight A/H1N1 flu cases on the Chinese mainland, an official with the Chinese National Influenza Center said here Wednesday.

Shu Yuelong, director of the center, which is affiliated with the Ministry of Health, said in an interview that the mutated virus was not resistant to drugs and could be prevented by vaccines.

According to Shu, the first mutated strain of the A/H1N1 flu was discovered in June this year in an imported case from Britain. Similar strain was detected three months later in Zhejiang Province.

The health department of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) announced one human swine influenza (HSI) virus which had the same mutation as the one detected in Norway recently.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), same mutation had been found in other countries including Brazil, Japan, Mexico, Ukraine and the United States.

"Mutations were almost inevitable in influenza viruses," Shu said.

Shu said the mutation detected recently was isolated and the cases were not interrelated to each other.

"This kind of mutant virus has been found in patients with slight and heavy symptoms as well as those who have recovered. The virus has not widely spread so far," said Yu Hongjie, an expert from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

The WHO concluded that the mutation' s affection to the public health had not been clear but it reminded health workers to strengthen the monitoring of the flu virus, Yu added.

"As far as we know, the vaccines are still effective in the prevention of this kind of mutant virus." said Chen Weiyun, spokeswoman for the WHO Representative Office in China.

Chen said the WHO had not decided to shift its focus from battling the flu to combating its virus mutations.

If the study revealed that mutations would be a threat, the WHO would advise the governments of all countries to adjust their measures.


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http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-12/01/content_12567446.htm

The mutation continues to spread


Italy reports first case of A/H1N1 mutation

    ROME, Nov. 30 (Xinhua) -- The Italian Health Ministry on Monday reported the first case of mutation of the A/H1N1 flu string.

    The ministry said the mutation was identified in a patient with a serious case of pneumonia, who has recovered after treatment with antiviral drugs.

    According to the country's Higher Institute of Health, the variant found in Italy is unrelated to the one blamed for three deaths in Norway and two others in France last week.

    Italian authorities have attributed 91 deaths to the new flu out of an estimated 3 million infections and the government has vaccinated nearly half a million of its citizens.

    Deputy Health Minister Ferruccio Fazio said the single mutation of the A/H1N1 flu virus reported in Italy so far was of no particular concern.

    "This variant is limited to a single patient that we know of ... (it) was kept from spreading," Fazio said.

    Vaccination and antiviral treatments were still effective against the mutation, according to the Health Ministry.

    Fazio said the government would likely extend the vaccination campaign this week to children between six months and 17 years of age, in addition to seniors over 65 suffering from chronic illnesses.

    Though the mutations have stirred fears about potentially dangerous new strains, the World Health Organization said over the weekend that none of them were resistant to the vaccine or antiviral drugs.

Medclinician



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technologist Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 05 2009 at 12:45am
Dear Penham or Albert, Please don't delete this thread, Med's or this post. People need to see that Med flames me continually.
If it get's deleted like his other flames then people won't see both sides of the argument or why med only has 1,635 posts left out of his 7,000-10,000 he has posted here over the years.


Med I've totally ignored you for a few days and avoided reading your posts yet you're still flaming away, harassing, insulting, insinuating and begging for a fight.
Some people don't catch that you tend to flame people that don't agree with you non stop. You flame and then you delete hundreds of your posts or the Admin here deletes your posts and threads. I catch them as I index this site before you can delete them.

Med this is just one of three posts in that last 24 hours where you Falsely accuse me of some seriously atrocious, brutal and cruel acts against the people in this forum.

You say I'm Killing People. -False
That I'm a Paid Government Agent -False
That I own This Forum to spread false information -False I have no admin privileges, Ask Albert or Penham.
That I personally attack your Family. -False Note: I live almost 3000 miles away :) and posting links to your decades of fiction is the Truth not an attack. I was nice to your X-wife when she posted here.
That I have stashes if "Hidden" Relenza - False I told people here how to order Relenza from Canada for $55 shipped to their door and spend the time to help them get scripts from their doctor.
That I have a secret "underground" safe haven with my friends and people will be dying on the surface because I didn't tell them to prepare. -False
That all I post is main stream misinformation and garbage. -False
That I'm in Bed with the .gov -False
That I post Rewarmed Garbage -False
That the Vacinne does not Work because I haven't Proved it. -False
That people are Paying me to keep the public in the dark and lives that will be lost because of my posts. -False

I tell people to prep for any event. I have 2.5 year worth of preps I would have more but at some point it becomes wasteful, costly and fills up your house. I've given reviews on long term food storage and helped people pickup generators and solar cells. I've helped them, presented articles on how to protect themselves in a Pandemic and posted where they can find vaccines and even how to create makeshift shelters in a power outage. This last week I've presented CDC and WHO articles showing that 5 million people "a year" are dying of AIDS and TB . That 2 Billon People have TB and that it makes the 8,000 worldwide Swine Flu deaths so far look trivial in comparison. How the heck is that calming and sedating the Masses? Our arguments are simple Facts verses Fiction. We know who spent the last 30 years creating Fiction.


Originally posted by Medclinician Medclinician wrote:

Tech- I have no doubt you have a stash of Relenza and you have debunked nothing. That is the purity of your posts - almost no relevant information verus personal attacks on me and my family. This has been your MO- crime stopper since we began this dance and it will be until you are either in a safe haven with your friends with people on the surface dying who actually listened to you and did not prepare.    Almost zip Tech for a Tech. Didn't you read Dr. Webster, Lancet, and over a thousand references I have quoted that are not taboid, but many that are rock solid science? Obviously not. We have been setting up sanctuary- so its been busy. You have nothing to post but main stream misinformation garbage.    And heavily sedated propaganda from Google which is in bed with .gov. You realize people are not comatose. You are the primary force on this site and if you don't own it, you might as well.    And this is not personal Tech. I have been at this medical thing a lifetime. I know my stuff. Start posting like you know yours. Science. Stop attacking posts and put up something that is not rewarmed garbage to sedate the masses. Not only are you not going to save any lives, you are going to cost a lot of people theirs who listen to you say there is no problem I have some time today to go back and grab more data- to make some global phone calls and play catch up. Thanks to the posters who are contributing real and useful tracking of what is really the Third Wave in the U.S.The virus has mutated so some is resistant to Relenza.. and because of the mutation- you have yet to post a single viable piece of data that the vaccine even works period. Your comment was.. well can you prove it doesn't. Whatever you are being paid by whoever is not enough for the lives that will be lost by trying to keep the public in the dark.    We will continue to track this- either here or whatever we need to. What happens will happen. And you will be explaining to the bodies on the ground that they have nothing to worry about.    John Bell- CEO Crystalware Defense - Medical and Technology Researchaka Medclinician author of Pandemic Now Survival Guide PI Synchro-Phaser Data Compression Project as per SP Initiative.



Hi Penham,

To the best of your knowledge. Have I ever had any ability to moderate posts, Admin privileges, Forum ownership here or anything to do with the administrative functioning of this forum?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Medclinician Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 05 2009 at 4:12pm
Originally posted by Technologist Technologist wrote:

Dear Penham or Albert, Please don't delete this thread, Med's or this post. People need to see that Med flames me continually.
If it get's deleted like his other flames then people won't see both sides of the argument or why med only has 1,635 posts left out of his 7,000-10,000 he has posted here over the years.


Med I've totally ignored you for a few days and avoided reading your posts yet you're still flaming away, harassing, insulting, insinuating and begging for a fight.


Readers have seen a great deal although almost 50 incredibly attacking flames of my family, my profession, my sanity, proof of my claims, and anything giving weight to me being anything more than a simple laymen have all been conveniently deleted. Tech- you and several (other) users flamed my wife when she incredible ill with Swine Flu- made fun of my son- and we beneath the dignity of a high school freshman. It is convenient to portray yourself as the poor injuried party after a 5 month combined team? of flaming-but people simply got fed up.

Now you can stop- and there is no evidence of the horrific mass of flames you have posted because you have deleted them.

I know who you are. As anyone with any common sense would.

The obsession with the welfare of the site, specific instructions to posters to go and check IPs- and 101 clues as to an extremely powerful access to the site as well as a more than normal concern and an almost hourly presence here pretty much tells the story.

You have neatly erased- or someone has all evidence- but users do have memories. And even their posts telling you to knock it off are gone.

You are not going to neatly wrap this up leaving a single angry post from me after hundreds of attacking personal ones- putting up my wife's picture, calling her fat, attacking my son-

back off Tech or I will post what you are and what you have done somewhere else where you will not be able to erase it.

You are not the only one who can capture posts Tech. Would you like to see several hundred of yours reposted.

My posts were deleted because I have been deleted 14 times from this site for disagreeing and posting the truth- i.e. 500,000 cases of Swine Flu in New York- that vaccine was toxic, and a lot of things that were sensistive. A letter from president was deleted- I have been called delusional, had plastic surgeon play psychiatrist- and then even when I have deleted posts thinking them better left deleted you have reposted them after capturing them.

Tech- you do not truly care for the users here. You have flamed doctors, relatives, you even attacked my sister in law posting what now has been made private journals. You have called me a drug addict, insane. Now I post as a real name and your fully accountable for what you have posted. Just because it has been erased, does not mean I don't have it.

There is no cute fight between you and I. Who has tried to take over and control this site in whatever form you take- and naturally so - Tech.

I know in the end I will be stepping over bodies and out there with Dr. John Ray trying to help people hit with the nastiest mutated flu you can imagine. And you will have a black screen and no internet to cover your months of telling people not to worry and not to prepare.

I have consistently tried to warn people and bring them the truth. You have consistently attacked anyone that you personally disagreed with. You have behaved like a child on an adult forum. Rarely have I fought back.

But when you attacked my almost dying son, that was it Tech. That was the last straw. And that is what you did- attacked my nearly dying wife and son.

I thank God they made it through. Bluebird was trying to fight you while her son was burning up with a 104.5 degree fever.

I leave it to the Pandemic- but be sure- as you preached there was no danger- surely you may have done much damage in keeping people from stocking food, water, and medicine with your perpetual .1% CFR.

Yes, how neatly it was all wiped out.

But some, including me who deeply loves my son and my wife who you flamed- will never forget.



 

Medclinician

John Bell- CEO Crystalware Defense - Medical and Technology Research
aka Medclinician author of Pandemic Now Survival Guide





This is the little child you attacked with your arrogant posts.

My son. Skye.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Medclinician Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 05 2009 at 4:32pm
Now that Tech has once again tried to divert a very important thread let us continue.

Med
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