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Online Discussion: Tracking new emerging diseases and the next pandemic since 2005; Coronavirus COVID-19 Pandemic Discussion Forum.

COVID-19 and Animals

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Tabitha111 View Drop Down
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    Posted: July 16 2020 at 11:21am

COVID-19 and Animals…Odds and Ends

By Scott Weese on July 16, 2020


I’ve been slow posting the past few days, so here are a few quick recaps from the animal/COVID-19 world.


Higher quality debunking of crappy dog-COVID paper


A paper that came out in April suggested dogs could be the source of SARS-CoV-2.

Most of us considered it crap at the time, and most people moved on pretty quickly. Still, it left some fear and poor messaging in its wake. Now, a proper dismissal of it has been published. I won’t get into the details, but it’s basically “everything that was written in that paper…yeah…not so much‘.


More formally, here’s the conclusion: “In summary, the proposition of Xia (2020) that dogs are a likely pre-human host for SARS-CoV-2 is not justified by available evidence."

"Xia did not demonstrate that the low CpG frequency in the SARS- CoV-2 genome was driven by a unique selective environment in dog digestive tracts. The SARS-CoV-2 is also less virulent than other human betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV), contradicting his assertion that CpG-deficient viruses are more virulent."

"Furthermore, closely related betacoronaviruses from bats and pangolins have CpG-deficiencies similar to SARS-CoV-2. Dogs are not more plausible than most other potential host species, and based on current data, far less plausible than bats or pangolins."

"Still, we are missing ~20-70 years of the recent evolutionary history of the lineage leading to SARS-CoV-2, and we must broadly survey a wide range of wild and domestic species to uncover the origin of SARS-like coronaviruses.”


Mink


Ugh. Mink are really susceptible and human-mink transmission seems quite easy.

  In the Netherlands, at least 24 farms have been affected, with widespread disease in mink and some mink-human transmission. There was a plan to eliminate the mink industry in that country by 2024 and this is speeding things up as mink on affected farms are culled.


In Denmark, multiple farms have also been affected. They’re taking a different approach there, choosing not to cull affected farms.


In Canada, so far, so good. There’s an emphasis on biosecurity measures to avoid infecting mink and low disease rates in people (at the moment) mean the risk is currently fairly low, However, it’s still a concern.

From a broader concern, a big worry is mink farms being a source of spread to wildlife. Spread to feral cats has been shown in the Netherlands. Spread to wild mink (which are present throughout Canada and US) is a bigger concern given how susceptible they are.

 We don’t want to create a wildlife reservoir, either from spread from farms to wild animals or from escape of farmed mink.


Pets


Cases of human-pet transmission continue to trickle in (and probably represent a small fraction of cases).

I’m sticking to my promise not to report each new case if there’s not really anything new.

 Infections in pets are still uncommonly reported. It’s probably much more common, since there’s limited testing. The animal and public health risks are probably very limited, especially in places where there’s rampant human-human transmission. But, we’d still like to contain exposed animals to prevent them from playing any relevant role.


Livestock


So far, so good. Fortunately, livestock species (beyond mink, obviously) do not seem overly susceptible, or susceptible at all.

We need to keep paying attention to this and I still think the message “If you might be infected, stay away from animals” is important. However, the risk of significant issues from livestock seem pretty limited.


Animal origin


That’s still a huge question, and one that we need to try to answer for various reasons. It seems a little late, but the World Health Organization has sent a team to China to investigate this further.


Well, kind of.


They’ve sent two people to discuss a larger investigation.


It might be a challenge to find the source but we have to try. We need to know if this virus is still lurking somewhere in the wild, and where. We also need to understand how and why this happened, to help prevent it from happening again (with this virus or one of many other potentially nasty bugs that are lurking in the wild).

***



'A man who does not think and plan long ahead will find trouble right at his door.'
--Confucius

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: July 16 2020 at 6:39pm

A nice update of things we do not know....COVID-19 and animals should be one of the priorities in dealing with Covid-19. 

You do not want Covid-19 in pigs. How prone are pigs to get Covid-19 ? Why is there so limited reporting on spread in animals while it must be widespread ? 

There is a very major risk of Covid-19 getting totally out of control if it spreads to other species-jump between species, increasing mutations and variations. If you think the present crisis can not get far more worse you are wrong ! It can get from very ugly to extremely awfull if Covid19 starts jumping from humans to minks to rabbits, ferrets, pigs etc. and maybe even mix with other ugly virusses !

If I make a comparison, a wildfire is nasty (certainly under hot, dry conditions with lots of wind) but if for some reason "the air starts burning" you can not longer fight the fire-you have to pull out. (I remember I believe Kuwait reporting in a heatwave in 2019 some palmtrees self-igniting due to sun-heat. Maybe some palm-oil or so became above ignition temperature. The fire-triangle started due to the heat-oxygen, fuel-sun provided the temperature....time solved the problem. Otherwise you may have to cut the palmtrees.)

If Covid19 is getting "out of control" in animals (and it looks like it is in the Dutch mink-farms) the only means of control is "end the minks farms". If you fail there it will spread further very likely (via wild cats ?) and the problem gets much more out of control.

Again-politics, healthcare, so far are failing to get a grip on Covid19 and-again-things can get much worse fast if Covid19 spreads to other species-this is NOT a joke ! 

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote ViQueen24 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: July 17 2020 at 5:08am

Maybe this is why they asked HoosierMom if she had been in contact with livestock?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: July 28 2020 at 5:17am

[url]https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/british-cat-tests-positive-covid-19-latest-sign-pets-can-carry-virus[/url] ;

UK public health authorities have just confirmed that a pet cat has become the first animal to test positive for COVID-19 in the UK, Sky News reports.

This isn't the first time a domesticated pet has tested positive for the virus'; pets in China, Japan and Europe have tested positive. In the US, a few tigers at the Bronx Zoo caused a stir when they tested positive back in April.

Though the British veterinarians who discovered the virus warned that this is a "very rare" event.

Chief veterinary officer Christine Middlemiss explained it was a "very rare event" and infected animals detected so far only show "mild clinical signs" and recover "within a few days."

Yvonne Doyle, medical director of Public Health England, said the finding "should not be a cause for alarm."

"In line with the general advice on fighting coronavirus, you should wash your hands regularly, including before and after contact with animals," she added.

There is no evidence that the pet transmitted the virus to its owners, or was infected by them. The only details publicly known about the infected house cat are that it lives in England and was tested at a laboratory in Weybridge, Surrey last week on July 22.

The cat was reportedly diagnosed with feline herpes (oddly enough, this is a common respiratory infection in cats) by a private vet, according to the UK's environmental department.

A sample was then tested for coronavirus as part of a research program by the Animal and Plant Health Agency, and the cat tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the COVID-19 illness.

The case has been reported to the World Organiztion for Animal Health in line with international commitments, Sky reported.

WHO and CDC have warned that pet owners shouldn't worry too much about being infected by pets, though they notably haven't ruled out such a possibility.

DJ-By accident this virus was found. Let's hope Covid19 is not getting widespread in cats.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: July 28 2020 at 5:22am






There were reports of cats being throw off 

Balconies in Wuhan at the start of this.....

Did they know something ??

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote kaye kaye Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 06 2020 at 9:37pm
keep the joy
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 06 2020 at 11:54pm

DJ-Good that such a project is there, even if it is only looking at cats and dogs (covering most pets). I hope they soon will bring data-how big is the risk of a human getting infected giving the pet the virus ? How are the chances of cats, dogs infecting other pets or humans ? 

From what we now know in NL there have been a very limited number of cases-two-as far as I know-of minks infecting humans-in those cases the infected humans did spread the virus to two other persons (most likely in their household). 

But things will change-and trying to monitor what happens is a basic. Again-you do not want large scale spread into animals and then further into humans. Covid19 is already almost impossible to control-if it jumped-on a large scale-into other species-we may be lost.

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/08/articles/miscellaneous/veterinary-clinic-access-and-covid-19-risks/[/url] underlines the risks of spread into other species.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 18 2020 at 9:16am

[url]https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2020/08/17/coronavirus-mink-first-us-cases/[/url] or https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2020/08/17/coronavirus-mink-first-us-cases/ ;

August 18, 2020 at 12:13 a.m. GMT+2

Minks at two Utah fur farms have tested positive for the virus that causes covid-19 in humans, the Department of Agriculture said Monday, announcing the first U.S. cases in a species that has been widely culled in Europe after outbreaks there.

Employees at the farms in Utah, the second-largest producer of mink pelts used for coats and other luxury items, also tested positive for the coronavirus, the USDA said. Dean Taylor, Utah’s state veterinarian, told reporters Monday state and federal agencies are conducting additional testing to determine whether the minks were infected by humans or vice versa, and whether minks at other farms are sick.

-

A small number of novel coronavirus cases have been confirmed in dogs, cats, and other animals in the United States and other countries, and scientists and public health agencies say evidence suggests most animals are infected by people and play no meaningful role in the spread of covid-19. Taylor emphasized that on Monday, saying “the risk of animals spreading SARS-CoV-2 to humans is considered low,” but he noted research has been “limited.”

Dutch researchers, however, said genetic analysis strongly suggested minks sickened by humans there passed the virus back to two farmworkers, in the world’s first reports of animal-to-human transmission. That conclusion has prompted calls by infectious diseases researchers for broader study of virus transmission between humans and animals.

DJ-The number of infected mink farms in the NL increased to 36 (of the 128=almost 30% !).  This evening "our" PM Rutte gives a press briefing on Covid19 in NL. Maybe they will do something....(most likely they will claim others should do something, mayors, schools, citizens-only government action may be buying more shares in airlines "to save the economy". )

Here in NL there seems to be no-further-link between Covid19 and new human cases. The spread from minks into humans seems to be very limited (most likely two farm workers who did themselve infect two familymembers).  The spread from minks into other animals (most likely cats) may be undertested.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 28 2020 at 2:10am

DJ-Finally our government has made a decission in how to deal with mink farms. Of the 128 farms already 41 did see infections....The decission now is that instead of ending mink farming in NL per january 2024-mink farming has to end per april 1 in 2021...that is it....no further action to stop the spread in and via minks. 

In my opinion-with reports from Gennep relating an increase in Covid19 cases in humans with mink farming-all alarm bells should go of. Most likely minks then also will spread Covid19 in pets etc-wich can further spread it...

A few links; 

[url]https://nltimes.nl/2020/08/27/dutch-permanently-ban-mink-farming-april-2021[/url] or https://nltimes.nl/2020/08/27/dutch-permanently-ban-mink-farming-april-2021

The ban on mink farming in the Netherlands will be accelerated after the animal stocks of 41 mink farms in the country were cleared in the past six months due to coronavirus infections. The ban will go into effect for the nearly 120 operating mink farms on March 21, 2021, more than 2.5 years faster than the government had planned

A law against breeding and farming the mammals was passed in 2013, with a ten-year transition period set to expire on January 1, 2024. The government has earmarked 180 million euros to buy out the mink farms over the next six months, government sources told newspaper AD and broadcaster NOS.

The plan will be announced on Friday by Agriculture Minister Carola Schouten, the newspaper said. The Cabinet decided against the immediate culling of all mink on all farms because the transmission risk from the animals to human is low, AD reported. Still, a handful of such cases were discovered in the Netherlands, which led to changes in rules regarding visiting the farms, and an early warning system was implemented to discover infected mink more quickly.

These rules were expected to be tightened up even further, the newspaper said. A deeper investigation into whether or not the farms were complying with the rules was likely, amid questions by a D66 Member of Parliament who suggested mink farmers could potentially have an infection spread among their animals and earn a lucrative subsidy from the government when their animals are ordered to be culled.

The MP, Tjeerd de Groot, suggested the possibility amid speculation that the market price of mink pelts would plummet later this year. The owners of farms whose stocks are culled receive a payout based on the 2019 market rate.

Since March, the mink dam on 41 farms and their litters have been culled after an infection of the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus was found. The latest farm was earlier this week in De Morte, Gemert-Bakel, had 4,000 dam which were being bred. The infection was discovered after symptoms of Covid-19 were found among the animals, the government said in a statement.

DJ-via google translate-very limited info; [url]https://www.gelderlander.nl/gennep/brandhaard-gennep-is-een-toevallige-samenloop-van-meerdere-kleine-groepjes-corona-infecties~a92ef1b8/[/url] or https://www.gelderlander.nl/gennep/brandhaard-gennep-is-een-toevallige-samenloop-van-meerdere-kleine-groepjes-corona-infecties~a92ef1b8/  :

NIJMEGEN / GENNEP - While the total number of new corona infections every day in the Netherlands is somewhat less than the previous one, it seems that a source of fire has arisen in the municipality of Gennep. Since last Tuesday, the number of infections there has increased by 16 to 77. A significant increase.

Yet there is no reason for additional measures from the North Limburg Safety Region, says spokeswoman Nicole Theuns. There is not just one seat of the fire. “Part of this peak in infections comes from mink farms. Another part originated in the private sphere, but does not come from one source. There are several groups of infections. ""

It is therefore a concurrence of small groups of infections that cause the peak. In the coming days it remains to be seen whether the number of infections in Gennep will increase even further, says Theuns. "That is very difficult to estimate." 

DJ-Spread via animals in my opinion is underestimated. With also testing in NL being "not up to demand" and most of the mink farming not that far from Germany, Belgium we may be facing a major risk. 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 28 2020 at 4:14am

Agree DJ.....


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 28 2020 at 4:48am

DJ-An extra risk is in escaped minks. In some area's animal care notice "more than usual" escaped minks. I can imagine some farmers might be dumping possibly infected animals-to keep their farm open. They get more compensation when they have to end the farm on government orders.

Those-possibly infected-minks search for food-end up eating rabbit, cat food-sometimes killing pets. Minks eat "a lot of things" so they could show up at a lot of places...


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DJ-[url]https://nltimes.nl/2020/09/03/coronavirus-another-mink-farm-44th-nl[/url] or https://nltimes.nl/2020/09/03/coronavirus-another-mink-farm-44th-nl DJ-The government wants mink farming to end by april 1 in 2021-the way Covid19 spread in minks there will be no uninfected farm left by then...

[url]https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Research-Institutes/Bioveterinary-Research/show-bvr/COVID-19-detected-on-two-mink-farms.htm[/url] or https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Research-Institutes/Bioveterinary-Research/show-bvr/COVID-19-detected-on-two-mink-farms.htm

It does not seem very likely that cats play a role in spreading the coronavirus. But given the many households with a cat in the Netherlands, it is important to further investigate the role of cats in the potential virus transmission of this respiratory tract infection. In this context, research into - among other things - (virus) transmission in cats is carried out by a partnership with research groups united in the Netherlands Center for One Health (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University, Wageningen University & Research, Erasmus MC Rotterdam and research centers in human health care).

DJ-This company tested 5000 pets for Covid19-to check on spread in or via pets but they did-so far-not find one. [url]https://www.idexx.co.uk/en-gb/search/?q=corona+test[/url] or https://www.idexx.co.uk/en-gb/search/?q=corona+test (on the sort of testing they have-it could be important to keep an eye on corona-virusses in animals/cattle-even if they are not related to human corona-virus infections (yet).

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: September 12 2020 at 5:46am

A new study on the spread of Covid19 virus in mink in the NL. [url]https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.01.277152v1.full.pdf[/url] or https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.01.277152v1.full.pdf The virus mutated every two weeks in the mink population. It did spread more often from mink to humans then expected. It is still unclear how the virus did spread, it may be farmworkers, wild cats or an investigation is ongoing if there could have been a spread on purpose. (Since marketprices could be lower than government compensation). 

Mink farms can become a reservoir for Covid19-virus. M. Koopmans-virologists-believes mink/fur farming may have been part of a missing link on how the virus spread from animals to humans. 

In the study they also looked at wath animals are easy to catch the virus-pigs are not among them. But cats, hamsters etc. are. 

DJ-Main point should be-YES-some animals may be part of a chain in virus spread. It may be wise to keep an eye on that to get this pandemic under control. 


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: September 12 2020 at 6:13am

Can't see it getting under control DJ.......

not for a long long time...

..

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[url]https://www.furfreealliance.com/shocking-results-of-the-investigation-on-probably-the-largest-fur-farm-in-the-world/[/url] or https://www.furfreealliance.com/shocking-results-of-the-investigation-on-probably-the-largest-fur-farm-in-the-world/ Carbon20-most likely the reason why so limited cases of spread of covid19 in animals is found is that we are simply not looking...

The study (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.01.277152v1.full.pdf) indicates it is quite likely mink farms did pose a risk to their enviroment-but at that time-april, may-there was no widespread testing. 

Spread via cats in my eyes may be another issue. Eventhough other testing in 5000 NL cats did not find Covid19 in a recent study. 

Officialy the Dutch policy is mink farming has to end before april 1 2021. I wonder if they will speed up the proces or go for delay and deny tactics-no peer reviewed study etc. It could also be they just do not read the report-"we did not know this-so there was no need for action". "Solving the problem by denying the problem"-with a mix of a serious look and a friendly smile-our PM is very good at this non verbal communication...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 07 2020 at 12:20am

DJ-Since there are real risks of Covid19 infections in animals-so far the "main accident" was the most likely jumping from an animal to human last year that started this pandemic. [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/09/articles/animals/cats/sars-cov-2-in-cats-updates/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/09/articles/animals/cats/sars-cov-2-in-cats-updates/ 

[url]https://www.furfreealliance.com/victory-france-to-ban-fur-farming/[/url] or https://www.furfreealliance.com/victory-france-to-ban-fur-farming/ DJ-In NL now 64 of the 128 mink farms did see Covid19 infections. Next month "the furs will be harvested"-mink farming has to stop by april 1 2021. By that time ALL the mink farms will have been infected...there is growing concern of people living near mink farms. 1-Minks escape 2-Other animals, cats, rats, show up near mink farms-allthough the number of people being infected from animals has been very limited there is a risk things may change. 

[url]https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Research-Institutes/Bioveterinary-Research/show-bvr/COVID-19-detected-on-two-mink-farms.htm[/url] or https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Research-Institutes/Bioveterinary-Research/show-bvr/COVID-19-detected-on-two-mink-farms.htm ;

Spread from mink to employee likely

Minister Schouten of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) reports in a letter to parliament dated 19 May that it is plausible that one of the employees was infected with the coronavirus by mink. In a second letter dated 25 May, she announced that it is plausible another infection of an employee via mink took place.

Further investigation of the increasing number of infected mink farms has shown that many of the employees surveyed were infected with coronavirus (more than 50 percent). Building blocks of the virus determined that this virus was similar to the virus that was circulating in the mink on the farm. On this basis, it can be concluded that many of these people are very likely to be directly or indirectly infected by the mink.

DJ-Our government lack of action is a major risk for global public health !

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[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/cats/covid-in-animals-review-part-1-cats/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/cats/covid-in-animals-review-part-1-cats/ 

How often do cats get infected?

That’s a good question, but we don’t have a good answer because surveillance has been limited. One of the earliest studies from Wuhan, China, raised concern about this because they found anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 14.7% of cats from that city, even though they did not target cats with known exposure to infected people. Finding antibodies indicates that the cats were previously infected. In contrast, another study of cats in Wuhan didn’t find any cats with antibodies.

The most relevant studies are those looking at cats living in households with people who had COVID-19, in which the rates of infection appear to be pretty high. A study from Hong Kong identified SARS-CoV-2 by PCR in 12% of cats from COVID-19-positive households.

Studies looking for the virus by PCR will under-estimate the number of infected cats, because there appears to be only a short window of time that cats will shed the virus. This is illustrated in the figure below from a small experimental study, which shows the shedding time for experimentally infected cats and cats infected by those cats.

The logistics of sampling cats right around the time their owners are infected are challenging, so looking for antibodies against the virus can tell us more, because antibodies stick around for longer after infection.

Our (small, so far) study found antibodies in ~50% of cats living in households with infected people. A pre-print of a study from France had somewhat similar results, finding antibodies in 24-59% of cats from positive households (depending on how the tests were interpreted).

So, my assumption is that cats living with people with COVID-19 are quite commonly infected. Whether it’s 5%, 15% or 50% we don’t know yet, but I think human-to-cat transmission in households is likely pretty common.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Hazelpad Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 19 2020 at 12:14pm

The findings so far seem to show " reverse Zoonosis". ( human to animal rather than animal to human)

 Humans can pass the virus to their cats, but the cats don't often seem to pass it to them.   Cats mount  an amazingly strong and rapid  antibody response to the virus  and have been shown to  secrete only very low quantities of it into the environment.   This is probably due to the fact various coronaviruses are constant companions to cats.  They have evolved to deal with many strains of this kind of pathogen swiftly. 

Ferrets are interesting, they have airways very like humans on a molecular and physiological level, so they get much sicker with this virus compared to cats and dogs and secrete the virus at much higher levels.  I would be more worried if I owned a ferret than a cat.



https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378113520305575?via%3Dihub

The following articles discuss what has been studied at The University of Glasgow in relation to cats


https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/do-cats-spread-covid_uk_5f75d285c5b6374c558a018d?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAACx6aUJMqvtw1NyPakFSKvtjzhpB1b2UceV4G5FU7chRBOPlMAzsmBAInGVll3Try5w238du-syJisMM50Ig6i_-FUyk98r54Q1N4giQP6x0UHPm0jw-3tfcJmpOmwvBNeoJKqDRlIPii3AYQq5_iPg7GbO9zWs9tBVkdj5C0FgM

  https://theconversation.com/how-we-found-coronavirus-in-a-cat-143697




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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 20 2020 at 7:15am

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/dogs/covid-in-animals-review-part-2-dogs/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/dogs/covid-in-animals-review-part-2-dogs/ ;

Regardless, it’s clear that the virus can infect dogs. This has been shown in experimental studies and through identification of infected pet dogs. A few different experimental studies have been performed, with similar overall results. In one small study, SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was detected by PCR in experimentally infected dogs, but they could not isolate the virus (suggesting the virus was present at a low level and the dogs were probably not infectious). The dogs remained healthy but some developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, supporting the idea that they were truly infected. They did not pass to virus to dogs with which they were co-housed. So, some or all of the exposed dogs got infected (the virus replicated in them for a while) but none got sick and they were probably not able to infect others.

Another experimental study yielded similar results….dogs could be infected and mount an antibody response, but didn’t get sick and were probably not infectious.

How often do dogs get infected?

We don’t know. Surveillance has been limited so the scope of human-dog transmission isn’t clear. The most organized approach to this was in Hong Kong, early in the pandemic. There, they offered to take pets from COVID-positive households into quarantine and test them. They identified the virus in nasal, oral and rectal swabs from  2/15 dogs that were quarantined initially. Neither had signs of infection, both developed antibodies to the virus and gene sequencing of the viruses from the dogs showed that they had the same viruses as their respective owners. Of particular note was the ability to isolate live virus from the dog. That suggests the dog could have been infectious.

Other study has been limited, in large part because it’s a logistical challenge to sample dogs in households with infected people during their isolation period. One small study in Spain didn’t detect the virus in 12 exposed dogs. An investigation of pets from a cluster of infected and exposed vet students didn’t find the virus in any of 12 tested dogs, although it wasn’t clear how many were actually exposed to an infected person.

Our initial study didn’t find it in any of 18 dogs (more to come on the expanded version).

However, there are numerous reports of individual infected dogs from different countries. In the US, ~23 infected dogs have been reported so far. That’s not a lot in the context of the dog population. But, not many dogs have been tested. Further, testing has focused on looking for the virus by PCR. That will underestimate infections because there’s a short window of time when you can get a positive PCR result from an infected dog. Dogs seem to only shed the virus for a few days after infection, so sampling dogs in infected households runs the risk of a lot of false negatives simply based on the timing of sampling.

Studies looking at antibodies will be more informative (if the tests are accurate) since detection of antibodies indicates infection in the past. Unlike our PCR-based surveillance, we don’t have to get into the household right at the time of human illness. We can test dogs later to see if they were infected.

Not a lot has been reported yet. A study in Italy found antibodies in 3.4% of dogs; 1/7 (14%) of dogs from known positive households and 2/133 (1.5%) of dogs from other households. Whether the 1.5% prevalence in other dogs is from dogs that were infected by owners that were never diagnosed or represents the false positive rate of the test isn’t clear. A French study found antibodies in 2/13 (15%) of exposed dogs and 0/22 dogs from households without known COVID-19. Those results are similar to our 20% (2/10) prevalence in positive households here so far. Obviously, we need to test a lot more dogs to get better info…that’s still underway.

Do dogs get sick?

That’s still unclear. I’d say that evidence is still far from convincing. There are a few poorly documented reports of sick dogs, but the question that has been largely unanswered with those is “did they have COVID-19 or were they sick with something else and also happened to have been infected by this virus?”. My guess is that disease is rare but not impossible.

Can dogs infect other animals or people?

Probably not, but that’s unclear too. Dogs are likely much lower risk that cats. The fact that virus was isolated from a dog raises concern, since if there was live virus in the dog’s nose, you have to assume there was some risk of exposure to in-contact individuals. Whether it was enough to actually infect someone is completely unknown. Lack of transmission in experimental models isn’t a guarantee (artificial environment, very small numbers) but provides more support of limited risk.

Overall, I’d say the risk is very low. I don’t think we can say it’s zero but I think it’s unlikely that a dog would pose a realistic risk.

That said, why chance it? If a dog is infected or at risk of being infected (living in a positive household) it should be kept away from other people and dogs. Dogs interact nose-to-nose and nose-to-bum a lot, and we have a lot of contact with their faces. We’ve seen other respiratory viruses transmission between neighbouring dogs through fence-line contact, so keeping exposed dogs under control and away from others is reasonable.

Could dogs be an important reservoir of the virus once it’s controlled in people?

No. Dogs are not susceptible enough to the virus. For dogs to be a reservoir, they’d have to be able to keep spreading it dog-to-dog. That’s not going to happen because of the low susceptibility and short shedding time. You’d need a very large number of dogs in regular close contact to even begin to get a risk. That’s not realistic here.

Could dogs be a bridge to wildlife?

Probably not…or at least it’s much less likely than cats. Their low susceptibility, short period of infection, limited (if any) infectivity and limited direct contact with wildlife mean the odds of them being infected by their owners then infecting wildlife are pretty negligible.

So, we shouldn’t worry about COVID in dogs?

Worry, no.

But, we should pay attention.

What should be done with dogs?

Same as for cats…(see the cat synopsis for more details)

  • If you are infected, try to stay away from animals…all animals…human and otherwise.
  • If your dog has been exposed, keep it inside and away from others.
  • Ultimately, dogs are part of the family so if your family is being isolated, the dog should be part of that.

and

Relax. This is almost exclusively a human virus. With a modicum of common sense, the risk posed from pets approaches zero.


DJ-Minks, ferrets may be the biggest problem...[url]https://www.sciencealert.com/coronavirus-is-killing-off-minks-in-their-thousands[/url] or https://www.sciencealert.com/coronavirus-is-killing-off-minks-in-their-thousands ;

The coronavirus pandemic has already claimed more than a million human lives, but we aren't the only living things in danger from COVID-19: minks are being killed off in their thousands because of the spread of the virus.

NBC News reports on the deaths of almost 10,000 minks at farms in Utah in the US, while the picture in Europe has been even bleaker according to Sky News – at a farm in Spain, for example, over 92,000 of the animals have been slaughtered after it was estimated that 90 percent of them had caught the virus.

In the Netherlands, the death toll has been even higher: over 1 million mink have been culled in the country over concerns that the animals could pass the virus back to humans, as per an AP reportWorld Health Organisation epidemiologist Maria Van Kerkhove has said the risk of catching COVID-19 from an animal remains "very limited".

In the case of the Utah outbreak, it covers nine fur farms and has been thought to have been caused by the virus being passed on from an infected handler. The first signs of the virus spreading to minks in the region were spotted back in August.

COVID-19 affects minks in a similar way to people, causing respiratory problems that tend to be worse in older animals. The mustelids group, which includes minks, weasels and badgers, is known to be at particular risk of catching the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 26 2020 at 12:46am

DJ-A Dutch TV program had an item on Covid in minks, raccoon dogs. [url]https://www.vpro.nl/zondag-met-lubach/kijk/afleveringen/seizoen-12/aflevering-6.html[/url] or https://www.vpro.nl/zondag-met-lubach/kijk/afleveringen/seizoen-12/aflevering-6.html (from min 17) Some of their findings (DJ I tried to add links)

-( m18-Volkskrant ) Compensation for fur-farms having to stop because of virus risk would be 182 million € (that would be 1,65 million per farm-divided over 110 farms (DJ-Why 110 farms ???)

-(min 20,30 all kind of new sites reporting on spread from minks to humans)

-min 21 escaped mink near chicken did bite owner of chicken-the mink may have been infected...

-min 22 US dept of agriculture-foreign agriculture service fas.usda.gov 14-09-20 1200 mink farms in Denmark

-min 22,39 information.dk 14 oct 20 mink variation of Covid19 shows up in Hjorring carecenter-several patients died [url]https://www.information.dk/indland/2020/10/muteret-corona-mink-daarlig-nyhed-gaaet-helt-galt-endnu[/url] or https://www.information.dk/indland/2020/10/muteret-corona-mink-daarlig-nyhed-gaaet-helt-galt-endnu (and more but in Danish....[url]https://www.information.dk/search/site/hjorring[/url] translated in English)

-23,50 Volkskrant In NL-11-09-20) 66 people infected via mink, virus jumping between minks, humans and cats causing 2 mutations per month (!!!!!) 

-fur ends up as extra's in clothing most people think it is no real fur. (Often from China) 

-Dorsten-Germany-Raccoon dogs missing link between Covid transfer between bats and (min 27) humans...

DJ-Maybe as "a comedy" this did manage to escape a "sort of media supervision" ? Somehow testing in humans and testing in other animals is kept apart from eachother while there could be a very major problem due to interaction between mink, cat, human infections...not only in NL or Denmark, a lot of countries have a "fur industry" (Poland, Finland, China, US, Spain etc). 

Again this should be top-priority ! If you want to get a grip on this pandemic stop creating pandemics....!

(Work in progress...) [url]https://pandemic.internationalsos.com/reports/mink-farm-employee-tests-positive-for-covid-19-jun-17-2020?page=22&sc_lang=en[/url] or https://pandemic.internationalsos.com/reports/mink-farm-employee-tests-positive-for-covid-19-jun-17-2020?page=22&sc_lang=en (a timeline for Danish minks)



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 26 2020 at 1:36am

DJ-Maybe I missed something-why is this not "breaking news" -but more or less local Danish news ????

[url]https://www.information.dk/indland/2020/10/muteret-corona-mink-daarlig-nyhed-gaaet-helt-galt-endnu[/url] or https://www.information.dk/indland/2020/10/muteret-corona-mink-daarlig-nyhed-gaaet-helt-galt-endnu ;

Mutated corona from mink is bad news - but it has not gone completely wrong yet

The worst nightmare for vaccine researchers worldwide may be becoming a reality in North Jutland. Coronavirus mutates in mink in ways that may weaken the effect of a vaccine. So far, however, it is a hypothetical concern, emphasizes researcher from SSI

-

On Wednesday, 89 mink farms were found infected, while 47 were under suspicion. Mink farms in Central and Western Jutland are now also infected.

At the same time, a new concern is emerging: it appears that the virus is mutating in the infected mink in a way that could weaken the impact of the vaccines on humans that are being developed.

The Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Mogens Jensen (S) told TV Midtvest on Monday. Several mink breeders and bourgeois politicians have criticized the government for going too far by also killing healthy mink within a radius of 7.8 km of the infected farms. But this is partly due to the concern that new mutations will occur if more mink become infected, the minister explained.

The Statens Serum Institut (SSI) writes in a so-called epidemiological report that the type of mutations that take place in mink can potentially mean "that herd immunity cannot occur and that vaccines will not work".

Some of the mutations have already spread to humans.

It does not sound very good, nor is it. But there is no reason to panic yet, says Anders Fomsgaard, virologist and chief physician at SSI, who is currently working on a vaccine.

The Royal Crown

“We can see that more and more mutations are occurring on the mink farms. And some of the mutations we are worried about, "he says.

The concern is about a very special protein in the coronavirus, which is called the spike protein. It is the small spikes that protrude from the surface of the virus and have given it the name crown crown virus - coronavirus .

It is the spikes that allow the virus to infect our cells. And that's why it's exactly the protein that all the vaccines that are currently under development are trying to neutralize. But now the protein has begun to mutate in the infected mink.

"What we are worried about is whether these mutations from the mink in the spike protein change the virus so that the vaccines do not work," says Anders Fomsgaard.

But, he stresses: It is still only a hypothetical concern. Of the "five to seven" mink variants of the virus that exist, three of them have so far been found in humans. One of the variants has been studied by SSI and it showed no signs of immunity to the antibodies that the vaccines will contain.

SSI has not yet finished examining the other mink variants.

Rapid carrier

The vaccines that researchers are currently working on are intended to protect humans in two ways:

First, using antibodies to neutralize the spike protein. It is the protection that can potentially be weakened by the mutations.

Second, there is the so-called cell immunity. This means that the vaccine ensures that you do not get sick from the virus, even if it sticks to the body. Thus, the individual is still protected against the disease, even if the antibodies do not work.

But you risk becoming a healthy carrier.

"We want a vaccine that protects against the spread throughout society," says Anders Fomsgaard. "It may be that you do not get sick yourself, but it does not help society if you are still infected worse than an accident."

That is why the protection from the antibodies is so crucial. And that's why Anders Fomsgaard is worried when the spike protein starts to change.

Optimistic

Anders Fomsgaard, however, is still optimistic.

"Yes I am. I am sure that the vaccines will probably work, "he says.

“Because now you do something. The herds are killed and the source of new types of mutations is removed. Then we must hope that the mutations die out. But we can not know. The problem may be that the vaccines do not work optimally. But I do not think that they do not work at all. "

-

The worst that can happen is that the virus mutates in a way that makes it immune to the antibodies, and that that variant begins to spread to humans. Then, according to a purely Darwinian logic, it will soon become the most widespread variant of coronavirus. Not only in Denmark, but all over the world.

-

Infection from mink

More than 150 mink workers have so far been infected with COVID19, says Anders Fomsgaard.

In at least two cases, people related to a mink farm have spread the disease to the community. It writes SSI in the epidemiological report.

In June, the infection moved from a mink farm to a local nursing home in Hjørring, where several residents died after being diagnosed with the disease.

Later, two people have been tested positive after attending a course with a person who is related to a mink farm and who himself became ill on the day of the course. It shows, according to SSI, that 'mink variants of the virus can continue to form chains of infection for the rest of society'.

"The continued development of the virus in mink with more and more mutations in the spike protein and spread by transmission to humans in Denmark poses a potential danger to public health and to the expected effects of a vaccine," writes SSI.

-

Wild animals

The first outbreaks of coronavirus on mink farms in North Jutland took place in early June.

From 8 June to 30 September, 1,386 people in the North Jutland Region have been found infected with COVID-19. Of these, SSI has examined 199 of them in more detail. 98 of the cases were the so-called mink variant of the disease - just under half.

The vast majority of the 98 cases were found during the first outbreaks of COVID-19 on mink farms in June.

SSI writes in the epidemiological report that there is a possibility that viruses with the kind of mutations found in mink 'can reduce or eliminate the effect of all spike- based anti-COVID-19 vaccines, just as it can increase the probability so that people who have already been infected can be re-infected with these virus variants, so that flock immunity does not occur '.

And then there is the risk that the minks infect wild animals in the wild. For example, by an infected mink escaping a farm despite the many safety precautions.

"Once this virus gets established in wild animals in the wild, we will have a very hard time getting rid of this virus ever," says Anders Fomsgaard.

-

Cooperation

Neither SSI nor the other authorities know how coronavirus spreads between mink farms or why it is so strong. When a herd is found to be infected, there is usually also a person related to the farm who is infected. It is therefore reasonable to believe that it is humans who infect the minks.

But it is still unknown. Authorities are currently investigating everything from whether it could be wild animals that spread the infection to whether the virus can be spread using hair from the mink's fur, which is spread by the wind.

(DJ-Could it be Covid19 may have been widespread in minks for a longer time ? somehow escaping testing ?)

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 26 2020 at 1:50am

"I've got as bad feeling about this Luke".....(star Wars ,obi  1)

Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.🖖

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 26 2020 at 1:55am

DJ-Since we may be talking over the heart of the problem, the cause of it-another article; Very good reporting !!!

[url]https://www.information.dk/indland/2020/10/myndighederne-troede-mink-forvaerre-epidemien[/url] or https://www.information.dk/indland/2020/10/myndighederne-troede-mink-forvaerre-epidemien 

Authorities did not believe mink could exacerbate the epidemic - but they could

For weeks, authorities have maintained that there is a low risk of COVID-19 being transmitted from mink to humans in the surrounding community. Now there are many indications that it has happened anyway. The Minister acknowledges that the strategy so far has not worked

-

It is now clear that the authorities' risk assessment has been incorrect. This is what Hans Jørn Kolmos, professor of clinical microbiology at the University of Southern Denmark, says.

"There is no doubt about that at all," he says.

'In my opinion, the authorities' assessment has been marked by wishful thinking. It does not take much biological understanding to figure out that this could happen. "

The infection pressure among people in the North Jutland municipalities is significantly above the national average. During the past week, 96 new cases of COVID-19 have been found among people in Hjørring and Frederikshavn municipalities. Part of the infection comes from mink. This was stated by Kåre Mølbak at the press conference.

He also said that mink breeders and their employees are the professional group in the country that has the greatest risk of becoming infected with COVID-19.

"Low risk"

When the first mink herds were found to be infected with COVID-19 in June, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Mogens Jensen (S) chose to have them all killed based on a precautionary principle.

At the beginning of July, he received a so-called decision basis from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, the National Board of Health, the Danish Agency for Patient Safety and SSI. Here, they recommended, among other things, that mink breeders should wear protective equipment, maintain high hygiene and limit access to the farm if infection was found among the minks.

»By following the current guidelines for people working on mink farms that are positive for COVID-19, it is assessed that there is little risk of infection from a COVID-19 positive mink farm into the surrounding community via people, ”the authorities wrote in the decision basis.

Against this background, the government decided to no longer kill the infected mink herds.

A few months later, the infection on the North Jutland mink farms began to rise sharply. According to the latest figures, 41 mink farms have been found positive for COVID-19. Another 20 farms are suspected.

Hans Jørn Kolmos does not believe that the authorities in July had sufficient grounds to assess that there was a low risk of infection from mink to the surrounding community.

»Mogens Jensen's first instinct to kill these mink based on a precautionary principle was really enough. But all of a sudden, it was no longer considered dangerous. It's a mystery to me how to assess it. I do not think one could draw that conclusion at that time. You had no experience, "he says.

New assessment

Despite the increasing infection among both mink and humans in North Jutland, the authorities have throughout maintained the assessment that there is a low risk of COVID-19 from mink being released into the surrounding community.

Until a few hours before Thursday's press conference, the head of emergency preparedness at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Nikolas Hove, said that the low risk assessment was maintained:

"Yes. We still have no reason to assume that there is a massive spread of infection from mink to humans, "he said before the press conference.

But now the minister has received a new, updated risk assessment from SSI.

There is still a lack of definitive evidence that humans have been infected with mink recently. But several things suggest it, says Nikolas Hove.

‘What we have been told by SSI today [Friday, ed .] Is that there are indications that it is spreading from mink to humans. But we have not yet got it finally documented by means of analyzes. "

The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration's risk assessment is based on advice from SSI. When asked whether the previous risk assessment has been incorrect, he answers:

»We base our risk assessments on data from SSI. As soon as they change their assessment, we will also change ours. "

Information would have liked to have asked SSI about how long they have known that there is infection from mink to the surrounding community and why they have nevertheless maintained a low risk assessment.

SSI's press department refers to the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, but writes in a short email that they follow developments continuously and recommend reactions as quickly as they can when they have enough data.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 26 2020 at 2:04am

carbon20- my (DJ) impression is complete failure of several authorities to do their job ! Covid19 spreading in fur-animals will not only happen in NL and Denmark-with a few other countries (US, Spain I believe had some reports, Poland, China may hide numbers. I wonder if China killed fur-animals to get a grip ? ) 

[url]https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200823/Raccoon-dogs-potential-intermediate-host-for-SARS-CoV-2.aspx[/url] or https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200823/Raccoon-dogs-potential-intermediate-host-for-SARS-CoV-2.aspx 

Researchers at the Friedrich Loeffler Institute in Germany have conducted a study demonstrating that raccoon dogs were a potential intermediate host in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – the agent that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

The study showed that the animals, which are kept in their millions on commercial farms across China, are susceptible to infection and readily transmit the virus to other raccoon dogs in close proximity.

Animals that were intranasally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 quickly became infected and went on to transmit the virus to direct contact animals.

“With China’s substantial contribution to the global fur production of > 50 million animals per annum, it is conceivable that raccoon dogs may have played a hitherto unexplored role in the development of the pandemic,” write Thomas Mettenleiter and colleagues.

The findings support the implementation of adequate surveillance and risk mitigation strategies for both farmed and wild raccoon dogs, they add.

A pre-print version of the paper is available on the server bioRxiv*, while the article undergoes peer review.

[url]https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.19.256800v1[/url] or https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.19.256800v1 

[url]https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.19.256800v1.full[/url] or https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.19.256800v1.full ;

Natural infections of raccoon dogs with SARS-CoV were reported (8), indicating a potential role in the previous SARS-CoV epidemic. In fact, 14.14 million captive raccoon dogs held in China for fur production (20) represent 99% of the global share

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 26 2020 at 9:53am

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/dogs/sars-cov-2-infected-dog-canada/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/dogs/sars-cov-2-infected-dog-canada/ 

DJ-Pets can spread Covid19-cats maybe a bit more easy then dogs...low risk but one has to take everything in account to get a grip on this pandemic.

Anyway, we’ve (finally) identified our first SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive dog in Canada. The timing of the sample in this case probably accounts for that, since we got into the household a bit quicker than average.

Here’s the story:

The dog is an adult dog in the Niagara region of Ontario. Four of six people in the household had COVID-19, and we detected the virus from the dog’s rectal swab. We had a borderline test result on the dog’s throat swab too, although it was a low enough level that we can’t consider it a true positive.

The other dog in the household also had a borderline result on its rectal swab. My guess is it was truly infected but at a lower level or at the start or end of infection. We’ll follow up on both dogs with antibody testing in a few weeks.  I’ll be surprised if both aren’t positive for antibodies.

Both dogs were healthy at the time of sampling and hadn’t had any obvious signs of disease. 

What does this mean to the family members?

  • Nothing (besides a unique story if they want to talk about it). The people in the household were all infected, and that was almost certainly human-to-human transmission. The dog(s) were infected by the owners and at that point didn’t pose any risk to the already-infected people.

What about other risks?

  • The potential risk from pets is if they have contact with other people or animals outside the household, such as going to parks, kennels or veterinary clinics. We don’t know if dogs often shed enough virus to be infectious to others. The Ct result (the number of PCR cycles required for the test to detect the virus) was well under the cutoff in this case, so it was clearly positive, but looking at some human data, a Ct in the same range (from nasal swabs, so maybe not a perfect comparison) was associated with a low likelihood of culturing the virus from the sample, and therefore the risk of infectivity is likely also low.
  • We’ve been going on the assumption that dogs are low risk for being infectious, and I don’t think this changes anything. However, we certainly can’t say there’s no risk from contact with an infected dog.
  • There’s also a plausible risk of transmitting virus to neighbours through the fence (something we’ve seen with canine influenza and parainfluenza). That’s why our messaging has been to consider pets part of the household in terms of COVID-19 precautions.  If people are being isolated, do the same with pets. It doesn’t matter if a dog or cat is infected if they don’t encounter anyone new.

So, from a research standpoint, we found it interesting, but it doesn’t change our messaging or mean there’s any more risk. This was the first confirmed positive for us, but it was certainly not actually the first positive dog in Canada. Lots of dogs have probably been infected before now and more will follow. We’re not testing every dog, and there is no need to do so. We don’t recommend people with COVID-19 get their pets tested outside of organized surveillance studies.

Don’t be afraid of animals in terms of COVID-19, but use common sense.

If you’re infected with COVID-19, limit your contact with anything with a pulse (not just people).

If your household is isolating because of COVID-19 exposure, make sure it includes the whole household.  (If you wouldn’t lick your neighbour through the fence, don’t let your dog do the same to the neighbour’s dog… or kid.)

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 28 2020 at 2:48pm

(DJ-I hope the link works)

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/other-animals/covid-in-animals-review-part-3-pigs/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/other-animals/covid-in-animals-review-part-3-pigs/ :

Are pigs susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus?

  • Kind of, but not really. There are conflicting experimental data that show no or very little susceptibility to the virus.

DJ-For flu-as far as I know-pigs are a "super mixer" creating all kind of mutations. One can only hope Covid19 does not feel welcome in pigs...

Why did we talk a lot about pigs and SARS-CoV-2 initially?

At the start of the pandemic, we were worried about the potential for this virus to infect pigs because of their ace2 receptor, which is used by SARS-CoV-2 to invade pigs’ cells. If the virus can’t enter an animal’s cells, it can’t infect them. Different animals have slightly different ace2 receptors on their cells. The pig ace2 receptor is quite similar to the one people have,  suggesting there could be similar susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Looking at ace2 receptors has been interesting, but we’ve also seen the limitations of this method, with some purportedly low-risk species being susceptible and some purportedly high-risk species being resistant. Ace2 is only a part of the picture, so while it’s worth considering, it really doesn’t answer the question of whether there’s a concern with pigs.

Trying to grow the virus in a laboratory in cell lines from a particular animal species can provide some additional information on potential susceptibility. In one study, SARS-CoV-2 was grown in 2 of 3 pig cell types, but did not damage the cells. In another study, the virus was grown in pig cell lines and caused some cell damage.  These all raised concerns about the virus’ ability to infect pigs, but there are limitations to what in vitro studies can tell us. To get the real story, we need to look at real pigs.

So, forget about pig cells – are actual pigs susceptible to SARS-CoV-2?

In three separate studies (Shi et al.,  Schlottau et al.Meekins et al.), pigs were experimentally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and mixed with naive pigs. Nothing remarkable happened. None of the pigs got sick and all samples collected were negative for the virus. Antibodies against the virus weren’t found in any animal. All of these results indicated that the pigs were not infected, and there was a collective sigh of relief as it appeared that concerns about pigs were unnecessary.

In another study, pigs were exposed to the virus via the nose, trachea and injection. All the pigs stayed healthy and the virus wasn’t detected in any samples, but antibodies against the virus were found after pigs were injected with the virus. Exposure by injection doesn’t tell us much about natural infection, and the other results are consistent with no natural susceptibility.

However, leave it to Canadians to be disruptive – an experimental study conducted by the CFIA found slightly different results in pigs.  It didn’t raise major concerns, but it suggested things are not not quite as clearcut. In that study, 16 pigs were exposed to a higher dose of the virus than in previous studies.  Once again, nothing remarkable happened. Some developed mild discharge from the eyes for a few days. One had a slight cough and was mildly depressed for a few days. However, low levels of virus were detected from respiratory samples by PCR from two of the sixteen pigs, although live virus could not be isolated. The virus was also isolated from a lymph node of one pig, and antibodies were detected in the blood of two pigs, supporting some level of true infection. Two pigs were added to the exposed pigs 10 days after inoculation, and they did not get infected. Overall, 5 of the 16 pigs (~30%) had some evidence of mild infection. So, this study showed some degree of susceptibility, but with infrequent mild disease and no evidence that pigs are infected to the degree that they would be able to pass on the virus to other animals or people.

Have any pigs outside of the lab been infected with SARS-CoV-2?

There are no reports of infected pigs to date, but I’m also not aware of any testing of pigs on farms. Field data are always useful because experimental studies don’t tell the full story of what happens in the “real world.” Some data about pigs exposed to infected farmers would be useful to have, to round out the story, but it would probably be low yield research since it’s quite unlikely anything would be found.

What should be done with pigs?

The same general recommendations apply as for other animal species. While the risks are low, we can’t say they are zero. If we keep infected people away from animals, we don’t need to worry about human-to-animal transmission, and any subsequent animal health or animal-to-human transmission issues. While the odds of someone infecting a pig are very low, it’s best to avoid exposing pigs to infected people whenever possible. That may not be an option on small farms run by one person or a family, but the more we can keep infected people away from animals, the better.  In short, better to be safe than sorry.

Next up for animal reviews: probably mustelids (mink and ferrets).

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 28 2020 at 3:01pm






Pigs the Great mixing vessel, 

Not a great deal of genetic difference between humans and pigs......snort snort..... sorry don't want to offend anyone.....with science.....lol

Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.🖖

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 28 2020 at 3:03pm

😉

Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.🖖

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 28 2020 at 3:24pm

We transplant hearts of pigs into humans....according to some testimonies the taste is the same (I do not know that myself-I do not eat humans or pigs...or other animals...)

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 28 2020 at 4:21pm






I have no problem eating meat, 

But the idea of breeding an animal just to harvest organs I find a bit wrong,

Is that hypercritical ?

Maybe it is!! 

There's far to many human organs go to waste ,

I'm an organ donor,and want my body donated to science when I leave this mortal coil.......

Don't want no zombies eating me though....lol

Take care all  😷😉


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Hazelpad Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 28 2020 at 5:35pm

I wish I was brave enough to be an organ donor but I cant get passed something.

Donor organ degeneration is where the organs start to decay before they get a chance to remove them. In the past a huge waste.  This has led to a new approach known as " aggressive  management of the donor "  before  harvesting the organs.  The body's physiological processes are supported  during the surgery to take the organs.  

These so called  "Heart beating brain dead organ donors"  ( see link) dont undergo any anesthesia before  having their organs  removed.  They feel there is no need as they are brain dead, and it can take hours to strip the body all the valuable parts.   I dont know if the line between being brain dead and being brain aware is strongly enough established for me to be brave enough to sign any form.   Occasionally  people considered to be brain dead turned out later not to be, and the science shifts the goal posts regularly.  That's why I am not brave enough to be a donor.

I am ashamed but there it is.

Hz x

https://academic.oup.com/bja/article/108/suppl_1/i96/237125

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2000/10/25/national/why-do-some-doctors-anesthetize-brain-dead-patients/

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 29 2020 at 2:03am

[url]https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/article/3105918/new-coronavirus-fear-new-strain-seen-swine-has-potential-jump-humans-us[/url] or https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/article/3105918/new-coronavirus-fear-new-strain-seen-swine-has-potential-jump-humans-us ;

A new coronavirus fear? New strain seen in swine has potential to jump to humans, US study finds

  • The virus, called swine acute diarrhoea syndrome, or Sads-CoV, began to infect swine herds in China in 2016, causing diarrhoea and vomiting
  • The most likely way for the virus to move to humans would be through contact such as between workers and animals at hog farms.
  • An emerging coronavirus strain that causes gastrointestinal illness in swine - and is especially dangerous to baby pigs - could wreck the pork industry and has the potential to jump species and infect humans, a University of North Carolina study has found.

    The study, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, looked at a virus called swine acute diarrhoea syndrome, or Sads-CoV, that began to infect swine herds in China in 2016, causing diarrhoea and vomiting.

    It killed 90 per cent of the piglets under five days old that contracted it.

    The virus, which has not been detected in the United States, is in the same family as Sars-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19. Both viruses are thought to have emerged from bats.



    Last year, a group of 14 UNC-Chapel Hill epidemiologists, immunologists and microbiologists studied Sads-CoV to see if it could cross species and infect humans.

  • “If this virus did occur in the US, the primary concern would be the swine industry,” Graham said. But in experiments, the virus was able to adapt and use human liver, gut and airway cells as hosts. “We know it infects human cells,” Graham added.

  • In reporting its findings, the team recommended continued surveillance in China, for spread of Sads-CoV in swine herds but also for the appearance of unexplained illnesses in people.


    China is monitoring for the virus among animals, Edwards said, because of the cost of the ongoing outbreak. But knowing that it could jump species means China also needs to monitor for “spill over” into humans.

    In terms of human illness, Edwards said, the Chinese need to be looking for “anything that we haven’t seen before”.

  • Graham added: “The tricky part is we don’t know what kinds of diseases would manifest” if the virus crossed over to humans.


    While the virus causes gastrointestinal issues in swine, it might produce respiratory or other issues in people, she said.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 29 2020 at 2:19am

DJ-Covid19 came from bats-most likely via other animals-to humans. [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus 

[url]https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3102711/coronavirus-pets-may-be-more-susceptible-covid-19-first-thought[/url] or https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3102711/coronavirus-pets-may-be-more-susceptible-covid-19-first-thought 

(I hope the links work-otherwise you can copy them to get to the link..)

One question I have is how do corona virusses interact with each other ? How big is the risk of all kind of mutations that create a further risk for humans ? 

Can a "cold corona virus"in a human "mix" with Covid19 and become a much more dangerous "cold" ? 

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus#Infection_in_animals[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus#Infection_in_animalsCoronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in veterinary medicine since the 1930s.[20] They infect a range of animals including swine, cattle, horses, camels, cats, dogs, rodents, birds and bats.[126] The majority of animal related coronaviruses infect the intestinal tract and are transmitted by a fecal-oral route.[127] Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases

DJ-Flu seems to be more bird (but birds CAN spread corona virus !!!) related, corona virus more land animals-and a lot of them...also in the wild. 

([url]https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128009468000246[/url] or https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128009468000246 )(DJ-Sorry for the links-but I am searching for some answers) better link [url]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296008/[/url] or https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296008/Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large group of enveloped viruses with a single-strand RNA genome, which continuously circulate in mammals and birds and pose a threat to livestock, companion animals, and humans. CoVs harboured by avian species are classified to the genera gamma- and deltacoronaviruses. Within the gamma-CoVs the main representative is avian coronavirus, a taxonomic name which includes the highly contagious infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) in chickens and similar viruses infecting other domestic birds such as turkeys, guinea fowls, or quails. Additionally, IBVs have been detected in healthy wild birds, demonstrating that they may act as the vector between domestic and free-living birds. Moreover, CoVs other than IBVs, are identified in wild birds, which suggests that wild birds play a key role in the epidemiology of other gammaCoVs and deltaCoVs. 

DJ-Is Covid19 a "gamma or delta Cov"? No-it is a beta Cov. [url]https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html[/url] or https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html (at least MERS and SARS-1 are). 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Technophobe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 29 2020 at 2:47am

I have the same concern Hazel.  I don't carry a card for that reason.  But Hubby and I discussed this at length and should HE decide there is no hope (and he has very stringent criteria) he will give the go-ahead.

Believers don't need proof and sceptics won't accept proof.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote carbon20 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 29 2020 at 3:31am

I don't carry a card

But wife knows my wish as I know hers ........

Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.🖖

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: October 31 2020 at 5:47am

Another good article from the [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/ 

Covid in horses, [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/horses/covid-in-animals-review-part-5-horses/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/horses/covid-in-animals-review-part-5-horses/ ;

What about SARS-CoV-2 in horses?

  • This one’s easy to answer…..we have no clue.

-

Studies have looked at the composition of the ace2 receptor in different animal species. Ace2 is the structure that SARS-CoV-2 uses to attach to the body’s cells. If the virus can’t attach to cells, it can’t infect them. The structure of this receptor varies between species, and that accounts (in part) for differences in species susceptibility. Not all studies have included horse, but one suggested that horses might be susceptible (more susceptible than a few species we know are susceptible such as cats and ferrets). Another ranked the likely susceptibility of horses to be equivalent to cats (domestic cats and lions, both of which we know can be affected) and camels (which we also know nothing about, beyond their being a host for another zoonotic coronavirus, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS)).

We have to take those predictive studies with a (big) grain of salt because the real world situation hasn’t always mirrored what was predicted.  Those studies basically tell me we should pay more attention to horses and see if there’s a problem, not that a problem is likely.

Just a few days ago part 4 [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/other-animals/covid-in-animals-review-part-4-mustelids-mink-and-ferrets/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/10/articles/animals/other-animals/covid-in-animals-review-part-4-mustelids-mink-and-ferrets/ :

So, mink can be infected, can spread it effectively between each other, can potentially infect people in contact them and may be a source of exposure for other animals. All of those are concerning.

(DJ-Due to lack of time and sleep and an overload of news I find it hard to keep up with developments...) DJ-In general testing in animals/pets for Covid19 seems to be minimal. If there is testing the relation with risks of spread to other animals/humans is not made...

For NL also this [url]https://www.einnews.com/pr_news/529461935/confirmation-of-avian-influenza-h5n8-in-wild-birds-in-the-netherlands[/url] or https://www.einnews.com/pr_news/529461935/confirmation-of-avian-influenza-h5n8-in-wild-birds-in-the-netherlands 


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: November 11 2020 at 4:25am

DJ [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/11/articles/animals/other-animals/covid-in-animals-review-part-7-cattle/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/11/articles/animals/other-animals/covid-in-animals-review-part-7-cattle/  ;

I’m going to have to go back to the start soon and update previous reviews, but there are a couple more species worth mentioning. Cattle are an obvious concern because they are important food animals that are widely raised and often housed in large groups. Some, especially dairy cattle, have a lot of contact with people. More human contact means more risk of exposure, and more animal numbers means more risk of spread (and mutation).

Fortunately, this virus doesn’t like cattle. We probably can’t say they’re not susceptible, but we can say they’re minimally susceptible. The risks to cattle are minimal and the risks to us from cattle are pretty much zero.


DJ-Denmark may need a special law to kill the remaining 15 million minks. [url]https://cphpost.dk/?p=120207[/url] or https://cphpost.dk/?p=120207 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 15 2020 at 10:06am

DJ

With mink-farming being ended in Denmark and NL for being a high Covid-mutation healthrisk-and China maybe now increasing mink farming-spread in wild animals is a major concern. [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/12/articles/animals/other-animals/sars-cov-2-in-wild-mink/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2020/12/articles/animals/other-animals/sars-cov-2-in-wild-mink/ ;

Some mink farm outbreak investigations have included testing of wildlife around the farm. Infected cats have been found in Europe, and testing of ‘wild’ mink around an affected farm in Utah identified an infected animal.

The virus getting into large groups of susceptible species, where it might be self-maintaining, circulating within and between groups, is the concern. At this point, we have no idea if that’s a realistic concern but it’s better to look than hope.

DJ-a link from the above [url]https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=8015608[/url] or https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=8015608 on an infected Utah mink.

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote roni3470 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 17 2020 at 6:56pm

I have to share the funny. NOT making light of our situation but this was funny.  So the WHO determined that dogs were not carriers of COVID.  So they requested all dogs in captivity be released.  So WHO let the dogs out.  hahahaha

NOW is the Season to Know

that Everything you Do

is Sacred
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 17 2020 at 8:54pm

DJ-For those dogs; [url]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7a9oaIDjkE[/url] or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7a9oaIDjkE DOG-TV ! 

TV For Dogs: Interactive Dog TV | 7 Hours of Entertainment - Keep your dog stimulated for hours with our entertaining and engaging video for dogs! 

DJ-may also work for humans...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: December 20 2020 at 2:08am

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/901879-eid-journal-susceptibility-of-domestic-swine-to-experimental-infection-with-sars-cov-2#post901879[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/901879-eid-journal-susceptibility-of-domestic-swine-to-experimental-infection-with-sars-cov-2#post901879 ;

DJ-Allthough not very likely pigs may catch Covid19. If such an event would happen on a larger scale in groups of (wild) pigs it can further develop. In such a scenario it may get easier to spread between pigs-and from pigs to humans (or minks, ferrets etc.)

Untill recent the chances for pigs catching Covid19 were believed to be even smaller/non existent-that view may have been a bit optimistic. 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 09 2021 at 12:06am

DJ, 

One may hope new variants in animals are being monitored...

[url]https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/2/20-3884_article[/url] or https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/2/20-3884_article

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 readily transmits between domestic cats. We found that domestic cats that recover from an initial infection might be protected from reinfection. However, we found long-term persistence of inflammation and other lung lesions after infection, despite a lack of clinical symptoms and limited viral replication in the lungs.

Previous studies have demonstrated the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by direct or indirect contact between domestic cats (1,2). Given the close relationship between cats and humans, further characterization of the biology of SARS-CoV-2 in cats is warranted.

DJ [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/ has good info...but sequencing of virus variants in humans is already a very hard job. With more spread in "poor area's" where people and animals more share rooms I do not doubt new variants will infect animals (other then humans). 

Some of those variants may be able to reproduce themselves better in other species...It could be welcome if Covid19 developed away from humans...but there is a growing risk of new variants getting more infectious in between species. Cats infecting not only other cats but also dogs, humans...

Monitoring events in animals has to remain TOP-priority !

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 11 2021 at 8:36am

DJ-Most likely NOT Covid-I hope...

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/animal-diseases-of-concern-excludes-h5n1/903632-nz-mystery-pneumonia-like-disease-killing-yellow-eyed-penguin-chicks[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/animal-diseases-of-concern-excludes-h5n1/903632-nz-mystery-pneumonia-like-disease-killing-yellow-eyed-penguin-chicks ;

Mystery disease killing yellow-eyed penguin chicks
Amber Allott12:30, Jan 11 2021

An unknown, pneumonia-like illness is killing yellow-eyed penguin chicks, and it could force bird rescuers to take drastic action during the next breeding season.

The yellow-eyed penguin, also known as hoiho, is one of the world’s rarest penguins, and is considered nationally endangered with between 4000 and 5000 birds left.

Dunedin’s Wildlife Hospital Trust manager, Jordana Whyte, said the disease was a respiratory infection, which presented like a type of pneumonia.

“We don’t know what’s causing it, or if it’s infectious from chick to chick...

DJ-[url]https://www.stuff.co.nz/environment/123911143/mystery-disease-killing-yelloweyed-penguin-chicks[/url] or https://www.stuff.co.nz/environment/123911143/mystery-disease-killing-yelloweyed-penguin-chicks ; “It only seems to affect them at a vulnerable, young age ... once they’re old enough to weigh a kilo[gram], they’ve passed the danger zone.”

-

The disease had only been diagnosed post-mortem so far, so Whyte did not know how many of the chicks they cared for had survived it.

She said they first noticed a few cases last summer, and decided it was something to keep an eye on.

But the problem became worse, with 30 chicks dying from the illness this season.

In theory the further this pandemic spreads the more likely it could even reach these rare sort of penguin. It may be a "variant" even not infectious for humans...still most likely NOT related to Covid. (If this would be a form of Covid this far away from its original hosts it would be very alarming-most likely species to get infected=bats, cats, rats, wild minks etc. Less likely seem to be camels (MERS), cattle...maybe pigs...)

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 11 2021 at 1:03pm

After tigers in Zoos now gorillas [url]https://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/gorillas-test-positive-coronavirus-san-diego-park-75184750[/url] or https://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/gorillas-test-positive-coronavirus-san-diego-park-75184750

SAN DIEGO -- Several gorillas at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park have tested positive for the coronavirus in what is believed to be the first cases among such primates in captivity.

The park’s executive director, Lisa Peterson, told The Associated Press on Monday that eight gorillas that live together at the park are believed to have the virus and several have been coughing.


It appears the infection came from a member of the park’s wildlife care team that also tested positive for the virus but has been asymptomatic. Veterinarians are closely monitoring the gorillas who will remain in their habitat at the park, north of San Diego, Peterson said.

While other wildlife has contracted the coronavirus from minks to tigers, the gorilla cases are believed to be the first reported from a zoo in the United States and possibly the world.

DJ-Detection in animals may mirror detection of new variants. There is a link-Covid19 can both cause and be caused by variants..Bad news !

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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