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H3N8 first fatal outcome

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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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    Posted: April 11 2023 at 12:00am

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/972535-cdc-statement-on-h3n8-case-in-china[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/972535-cdc-statement-on-h3n8-case-in-china ;

Two weeks ago the CDC authorities in Guangdong Province, China reported that country's 3rd H3N8 human infection in a year; in a 56 year-old female with existing medical conditions, who reportedly died on March 16th.


Earlier today we saw a brief update from the WHO WPRO on this case, and hopefully we'll get more details in the days to come.


Today the CDC has posted the following statement on this 3rd case, which may have been written before the the WHO statement we saw earlier today, as it does not mention the patient's recently revealed fatal outcome.

see also [url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/04/cdc-statement-on-h3n8-case-in-china.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/04/cdc-statement-on-h3n8-case-in-china.html 

DJ-We need more info...

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H3N8[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H3N8 ;

H3N8 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus that is endemic in birds, horses and dogs. It is the main cause of equine influenza and is also known as equine influenza virus. In 2011, it was reported to have been found in seals.[1] Cats have been experimentally infected with the virus, leading to clinical signs, shedding of the virus and infection of other cats.[2] In 2022 and 2023, three people in China were infected with H3N8.[3]

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History[edit]

In 1963, the H3N8 (A/equine/2/Miami/63) subtype created an epidemic of equine influenza in Miami and subsequently spread throughout North and South America and Europe, creating massive outbreaks during 1964 and 1965. Since 1963, the H3N8 virus has drifted along a single lineage at a rate of 0.8 amino acid substitutions per year. Between 1978 and 1981, there were widespread epidemics of the A/equine/2 strain throughout the US and Europe despite the development of vaccines. Since the late 1980s, evolution of the H3N8 virus has diverged into two families: an "American-like" lineage and a "European-like" lineage.[5] A 1997 study found H3N8 was responsible for over one quarter of the influenza infections in wild ducks.[6]

H3N8 has been suggested as a possible cause of the 1889–1890 pandemic in humans, and also another epidemic in 1898–1900.[7][8] Before the identification of H3N8 as a possible cause of the 1889 pandemic, the H2N2 subtype was suggested.[9][10][11] At this point, it is not possible to identify the virus for either the 1889 or 1900 outbreak with certainty.[12]

DJ, Does post acute CoViD decrease immunity in a way H3N8 has more chances ? Are we able to go for massive testing-with that many diseases spreading ? 

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/china-other-health-threats/china-seasonal-flu-tracking/972481-china-seasonal-flu-visits-increased-significantly-in-shenzhen-guangdong-province-april-9-2023[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/china-other-health-threats/china-seasonal-flu-tracking/972481-china-seasonal-flu-visits-increased-significantly-in-shenzhen-guangdong-province-april-9-2023 

China - Seasonal flu visits "increased significantly" in Shenzhen, Guangdong province - April 9, 2023



alert! Shenzhen has entered the influenza epidemic period, mainly influenza A virus
April 09, 2023 06:47 Author of Sina.com Shenzhen Evening News

   Shenzhen Evening News (Reporter Zhou Qian) Recently, the number of influenza visits in Shenzhen has increased significantly. In the last week (March 27-April 2), the influenza-like case visit index (ILI%) of the city's influenza surveillance sentinel units was 11.3%. The results of etiological surveillance showed that Shenzhen was in the epidemic period of influenza, and mainly influenza A virus. The Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention reminds that collective units such as primary and secondary schools and kindergartens are places with high incidence of influenza clusters. Citizens should do a good job of hand hygiene and avoid going to crowded public places with poor ventilation in the near future. Schools must pay special attention to influenza prevention.

   The onset of influenza is usually "acute". If you have fever (up to 39°C~40°C), sore throat, cough, nasal congestion, runny nose, headache, myalgia, and fatigue during the epidemic season, you should pay special attention. Influenza is easily confused with a cold, and a diagnosis can only be confirmed by testing, including nucleic acid testing, virus isolation and culture, antigen testing, and serological testing. Generally speaking, everyone is susceptible to influenza, but children, the elderly, obese people, pregnant women and other groups are more likely to become severely ill after being infected. Therefore, if you have a persistent high fever, accompanied by signs of severe cough, dyspnea, mental changes, severe vomiting, diarrhea, etc., you should go to the hospital in time.

   Disease control experts remind that flu vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent flu, and it is best to get it before the flu season. The flu vaccine can be given as long as it is valid, and the best time for vaccination is from September to November every year. It is now close to the end of vaccination, and the stock is limited. Citizens in need can make an appointment on the WeChat official account of "Shenzhen Health and Health Commission" or "Shenzhen Disease Control" before going to vaccinate.

zhttps://k.sina.com.cn/article_1913382117_720be4e502001g70s.html

DJ...do flu-vaccines offer at least some protection against H3N8 ? Is there at least some testing to see if H3N8 may be more widespread ? 

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: September 05 2023 at 7:18am

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/09/cell-airborne-transmission-of-human.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/09/cell-airborne-transmission-of-human.html 

Cell: Airborne Transmission of Human-isolated Avian H3N8 Influenza Virus Between Ferrets

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Just over 16 months ago China reported the first known human infections with H3N8 - affecting two small children (one severely) - living roughly 400 miles apart. Of note - in the first (more severe) case, the family dog and cat both tested positive for H3N8 - and a full-length HA sequencing revealed the HA to be identical to the boy's.

Over the next year we followed  numerous reports on these two initial cases in China, and somewhat ominously, the detection of H3N8 in Hong Kong's poultry roughly 1000 km away from the first human case.

A third human case was reported in March of 2023 by the Guangdong CDC (Zhongshan City). The patient was a a 56-year-old female with multiple myeloma and other medical conditions, who died (apparently from complications of pneumonia) after 2 weeks in the hospital. 

While these are the only 3 known human infections with H3N8, we've been following its evolution in birds, dogs, horses, and marine mammals for quite some time.


  • H3N8 remains a plausible cause of a global influenza pandemic that spread out of Russia in 1889-1900 (although some researchers now suspect a coronavirus instead).   
  • about 60 years ago H3N8 jumped unexpectedly to horses, supplanting the old equine H7N7 and is now the only equine-specific influenza circulating the globe
  • in 2004 the equine H3N8 virus mutated enough to jump to canines, and began to spread among greyhounds in Florida (see EID Journal article Influenza A Virus (H3N8) in Dogs with Respiratory Disease, Florida).
  • in 2011 avian H3N8 was found in marine mammals (harbor seals), and 2012’s mBio: A Mammalian Adapted H3N8 In Seals, provided evidence that this virus had recently adapted to bind to alpha 2,6 receptor cells, the type found in the human upper respiratory tract.
  • in 2015's J.Virol.: Experimental Infectivity Of H3N8 In Swine, we saw a study that found that avian (but not canine or equine) H3N8 could easily infect pigs.

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Today we've another study, published in the Journal Cell, which finds that an H3N8 virus isolated from the first patient with severe pneumonia (A/Henan/4-10/2022 [HN/4-10]) had acquired a crucial mammalian adaptation (PB2-E627K) enabling it to spread efficiently between ferrets. 

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In addition, the antigenic cross-reactivity between the circulating H3N8 avian influenza virus and human influenza vaccine strains is low. No cross-reactive antibodies to the H3N8 virus were observed in individuals who had been vaccinated against the human H3N2 virus vaccine. This suggests that such viruses may pose a potential challenge to human health.

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Our track record in predicting the next pandemic remains abysmal, and while H5N1 is currently garnering the most headlines, H3N8 (or EA H1N1 `G4', or any of several dozen other avian or swine flu viruses) could easily beat it to the punch. 

What does seem certain is that the diversity and geographic spread of novel flu viruses continues to increase  around the world, which makes additional reassortment events - and spillovers - increasingly likely. 

While it could take years, nature will eventually come up with a better flu virus.  And when that happens, we'd better be ready for it. 

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DJ If (Long) CoViD (infection) results in less immunity-or exhausted immunity-it could result in even more room for new types of flu like the H3N8 type. 

see also [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H3N8[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H3N8 ;

H3N8 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus that is endemic in birds, horses and dogs. It is the main cause of equine influenza and is also known as equine influenza virus. In 2011, it was reported to have been found in seals.[1] Cats have been experimentally infected with the virus, leading to clinical signs, shedding of the virus and infection of other cats.[2] In 2022 and 2023, three people in China were infected with H3N8,[3] with one fatality, marking the first time a human has died from this strain of flu.[4]

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Diagnosis[edit]

Fever of 102.5–105.0 °F (39.2–40.6 °C), frequent dry cough for several weeks, ‘drippy’ nose with discharge and secondary bacterial infection are some of the clinical signs of Equine influenza virus infection. isolation of influenza virus from nasopharyngeal and or large rise in antibody titer in equine-1 or 2 serum can be used as diagnosis in horses. Other clinical findings may include a serous or light mucoid nasal discharge, epiphora, tender but rarely swollen submandibular lymph nodes, hyperemia of nasal and conjunctival mucosa, tachypneatachycardia, limb edema, muscle soreness and stiffness.[15]

Period of infectivity[edit]

The length of time a horse can spread the virus after being infected. It is a very important concept, because horses can still infect other horses after they have gotten over their own illness. Viruses that are shed for long periods of time after a horse gets better are much harder to control. Horses tend to be most infectious (i.e. shedding the most virus) in the first 24–48 hours after they develop a fever, but they can shed the virus for up to 7–10 days after their signs of illness disappear.[14]

Again, lack of testing may give new virusses/diseases way to much room for spread !

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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