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PANDEMIC ALERT LEVEL
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Now tracking the new emerging South Africa Omicron Variant

H5N1 spread in mammals

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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: H5N1 spread in mammals
    Posted: February 03 2023 at 11:07pm

[url]https://www.coronaheadsup.com/health/bird-flu/bird-flu-pandemic-mammals-being-infected-with-h5n1-across-the-globe/[/url] or https://www.coronaheadsup.com/health/bird-flu/bird-flu-pandemic-mammals-being-infected-with-h5n1-across-the-globe/ and [url]https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-64474594[/url] or https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-64474594

Figures released to the BBC show the virus has led to the death of about 208 million birds around the world and at least 200 recorded cases in mammals.

Public health bosses warn the mutation in mammals could see a jump to humans but the risk to the public is very low.

DJ....sorry-but my non-expert view is spread of H5N1 in mammals means it will spread to humans...In Spain it did spread between minks. Maybe so far mammals most catch H5N1 from eating death birds, bird droppings...but the known cases only are the tip of the iceberg...There must be much more cases...

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/968049-us-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-red-fox-in-wyoming-and-bobcat-in-california-woah-february-3-2023[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/968049-us-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-red-fox-in-wyoming-and-bobcat-in-california-woah-february-3-2023 

and [url]https://www.coronaheadsup.com/health/bird-flu/pandemic-flu-uks-largest-vaccination-programme-planned-for-2023/[/url] or https://www.coronaheadsup.com/health/bird-flu/pandemic-flu-uks-largest-vaccination-programme-planned-for-2023/ 

DJ-The first important step is to provide good, realistic information...not to make false claims on low risks to avoid panic !

In the CoViD pandemic terrible communications did result in endless, pointless, discussions and NO strategy...CoViD is NOT over !

Include communication-experts in crises communication so good info limits damage, "fake news" get less chance...

Let’s not equivocate here: With an increasing number of H5N1 spillover events into humans being reported, this could be the start of the second zoonotic global pandemic in just four years.

Today might be a really good day to revisit your decision not to mask in public..

Masks matter... Flu gives a different kind (group immunity) of pandemic then CoViD (no group immunity) gives...A problem however is co-spread of CoViD and H5N1...

The world now has over 100 million refugees - outcome of endless NATO wars....further increasing risks...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 03 2023 at 11:36pm

DJ, 

H5N1 did mutate...however that mutation resulted in easier spread from infected bird/animal to mammals NOT -so far- between mammals !

(For that matter the BBC-story [url]https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-64474594[/url] or https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-64474594 has good info !)

-It is good there is now more testing for H5N1 in wild animals ...however a-symptomatic spread may miss part of such spread.

-There have been "gain-of-function" studies (a.o. in NL-Rotterdam EMC)...so it may be possible to see what risks new mutations in H5N1 (in mammals)  may bring...

-Maybe it would be a good idea to test human samples (in store) to detect H5N1 a/pre-symptomatic spread. 

If you have to deal with risks it may be wiser to get to know those risks then to deny them....

Given the very high number of H5N1 cases in birds....tens of millions worldwide...there had to be more cases of mammals catching H5N1...So the detected mutation in H5N1 resulting in more bird-mammal spread 9still) may be minor...Most of mammal H5N1 cases could be explained by the very high number of birds with H5N1 (being eaten/bird droppings) by mammals...

There are lots of steps that can be taken to reduce risks...From keeping cats indoors, dogs "under control" -report dead birds-"hot-line" to increase testing/sequencing (also some ad random testing to detect a/pre-symptomatic spread...). Problem however is "denialism of risks/economy only"....repeating the mistakes made at the start of CoViD spreading...running behind the facts...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 04 2023 at 12:26am
Avian flu prevention message for the public: ᴅᴏ ɴᴏᴛ ᴛᴏᴜᴄʜ ꜱɪᴄᴋ ᴏʀ ᴅᴇᴀᴅ ʙɪʀᴅꜱ 🦢 If you find a dead wild bird, report it: https://gov.uk/guidance/report-dead-wild-birds 

If you find a sick/injured bird, call RSPCA: • 300 1234 999 in England or Wales • 03000 999 999 in Scotland

DJ In the Netherlands [url]https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/vogelgriep/vraag-en-antwoord/ik-heb-een-dode-vogel-gevonden-wat-moet-ik-doen[/url] or https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/vogelgriep/vraag-en-antwoord/ik-heb-een-dode-vogel-gevonden-wat-moet-ik-doen (an online form for wild birds...

[url]https://www.dierenambulance.nl/[/url] or https://www.dierenambulance.nl/ animal-ambulance, vets also can advise

[url]https://www.wur.nl/en/research-results/research-institutes/bioveterinary-research/show-bvr/bird-flu-at-poultry-farms-in-20222023.htm[/url] or https://www.wur.nl/en/research-results/research-institutes/bioveterinary-research/show-bvr/bird-flu-at-poultry-farms-in-20222023.htm following NL situation. 

[url]https://www.favv-afsca.be/professionelen/dierlijkeproductie/dierengezondheid/vogelgriep/[/url] or https://www.favv-afsca.be/professionelen/dierlijkeproductie/dierengezondheid/vogelgriep/ Belgium has a "hot-line" 0800-99 777

DJ-Maybe it would be a good idea to have an international hot line for questions and reports ? 0800-BIRD FLU ???

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 04 2023 at 5:24am

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/01/articles/animals/cats/h5n1-avian-influenza-in-a-cat-france/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/01/articles/animals/cats/h5n1-avian-influenza-in-a-cat-france/ ;

As the current (and unprecedented) H5N1 avian flu outbreak continues, there’s the ongoing threat of transmission to other species. The extent of spread to mammals is hard to say since it’s hard to know how many wild mammals have been infected.

DJ...one can make calculations, realistic estimates...

However, we know that an impressive range of species has been infected. Spread to mammals is a concern because the more widely this virus spreads, the greater the chance for recombination with other flu viruses to create a “new” strain that could cause serious problems in humans or other species.

A recent news report and the corresponding WOAH report are light on details but describe H5N1 infection in a domestic cat in France from late 2022.

The cat lived on a duck farm and was euthanized after developing severe neurological disease. That’s a clinical presentation that’s not been uncommon in mammals that have been infected with H5N1 influenza during this outbreak. That doesn’t mean this virus usually causes neurological disease. It might be a matter of animals with neurological disease simply being more likely to be noticed and/or tested. H5N1 avian influenza infection was confirmed, and the virus recovered from the cat had “genetic characteristics of adaptation to mammals.”

DJ There was earlier reporting on H5N1 in Spanish minks-did that show (the same) mutations ? 

The good news is that cats (as far as we know) don’t have their own flu virus in circulation (unlike dogs, horses, and pigs). That makes it unlikely that a cat would be infected with avian flu and another flu strain simultaneously, which would increase the potential for viral recombination. However, it’s still a concern since cats can (rarely) be infected with flu strains from other species, including human flu viruses.

Overall, the relevance here is mainly to the cat. The odds of this signalling a new problem are low, but it highlights the concerns we have about how far this virus continues to spread. It’s playing with fire.

The other consideration is the potential for cats to act as a bridge from wildlife to humans. Cats that get infected through exposure to wild birds can bring the virus into closer contact with people. It’s another good reason to keep cats indoors whenever possible, particularly if avian flu is circulating.

DJ...case-case-cluster-cluster-boom...Lots of isolated cases in mammals may signal we are -still- in the "case-phase" (minks as exception...) but do we test  (some) rats, mice etc for H5N1 ? Just to check ? 

See also [url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/01/articles/animals/other-animals/avian-influenza-in-mink-should-we-care/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/01/articles/animals/other-animals/avian-influenza-in-mink-should-we-care/ 

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 04 2023 at 11:37pm

DJ, H5N1 may be the most detected form of "bird flu" it is not the only type of "increased risk flu"-from FluTrackers;

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/asia/h5n1-h5n8-h1n08-tracking/hong-kong/968087-hong-kong-h5n1-h7n9-h5n6-all-avian-flu-tracking-link[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/asia/h5n1-h5n8-h1n08-tracking/hong-kong/968087-hong-kong-h5n1-h7n9-h5n6-all-avian-flu-tracking-link 

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[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/asia/h5n1-h5n8-h1n08-tracking/china/968086-china-h5n1-h5n6-h7n9-all-avian-flu-tracking-link[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/asia/h5n1-h5n8-h1n08-tracking/china/968086-china-h5n1-h5n6-h7n9-all-avian-flu-tracking-link 

DJ-Both linking to other links....

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/968084-viruses-swine-to-ferret-transmission-of-antigenically-drifted-contemporary-swine-h3n2-influenza-a-viruses[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/968084-viruses-swine-to-ferret-transmission-of-antigenically-drifted-contemporary-swine-h3n2-influenza-a-viruses ; While avian H5N1 is currently viewed as the most concerning new pandemic threat (and with good reason)it isn't the only potential candidate out there. The CDC tracks no less than 23 novel flu subtypes with pandemic potential (see IRAT List below).

The flu virus with the highest emergence score (as of 2020) was an EA H1N1 virus circulating in swine in China (see EID Journal: Zoonotic Threat of G4 Genotype Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses, China, 2020).

While its score would be ranked higher today, when avian H5N1 (clade 2.3.4.4b) was added to this list less than a year ago, it debuted in the middle of the pack - at #14 - on our influenza hit parade.


In second place (in terms of likelihood of emergence) is a North American Swine Variant H3N2v [A/Ohio/13/2017] which was added in 2020, which joins 2 other North American Swine flu viruses (H1N2 variant [A/California/62/2018] and H3N2 variant [A/Indiana/08/2011]).

This list is only of influenza viruses thought to have pandemic potential, and does not include other threats, such as coronaviruses (i.e. MERS-CoV), or zoonotic pathogens like Nipah, Langya, or Ebola.

-

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/surveillance-and-epidemic-control/968079-vet-microbiol-evolution-and-mammalian-adaptation-of-h3-and-h10-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-in-wild-birds-in-yancheng-wetland-of-china[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/surveillance-and-epidemic-control/968079-vet-microbiol-evolution-and-mammalian-adaptation-of-h3-and-h10-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-in-wild-birds-in-yancheng-wetland-of-china 

-

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/surveillance-and-epidemic-control/968072-j-virol-methods-comparative-assessment-of-lyophilized-and-wet-reagents-for-the-molecular-detection-of-h5n1-high-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-and-h9n2-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/surveillance-and-epidemic-control/968072-j-virol-methods-comparative-assessment-of-lyophilized-and-wet-reagents-for-the-molecular-detection-of-h5n1-high-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-and-h9n2-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus 

-

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/surveillance-and-epidemic-control/968070-virus-genes-genome-sequence-analysis-of-h7n3-subtype-avian-influenza-virus-originated-from-wild-birds-and-its-potential-infectivity-in-mice[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/surveillance-and-epidemic-control/968070-virus-genes-genome-sequence-analysis-of-h7n3-subtype-avian-influenza-virus-originated-from-wild-birds-and-its-potential-infectivity-in-mice 

DJ...this list may implicate how hard it is to monitor spread of (many) flu-types from one species to another...

There are lots of reasons such jumping-of-species is high risk...a flu-type may get the right genetics to be of increased risk also for humans...A co-infection with another (flu)virus may result in a much more risk flu-type...

Maybe the basic story has to be diseases are a growing risk-in part because of climate change but also population pressure...people getting more in contact with (wild) animals and the diseases they carry...

I think it is IMPOSSIBLE ! to have a "line of defense" strong enough to keep new/other diseases "out"...so we need more awareness of the risks-change the way we-as humans-behave to lower the risks (via Non Pharma Interventions...there are limits to what "Pharma" can offer...). 


We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 07 2023 at 4:52am

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/968188-peru-sernanp-reports-at-least-585-sea-lions-50-000-birds-killed-by-avian-flu[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/968188-peru-sernanp-reports-at-least-585-sea-lions-50-000-birds-killed-by-avian-flu ;

Yesterday, in SENASA: Peru Confirms H5N1 In 3 Sea Lions and A Dolphin, we saw the official announcement that 3 dead sea lions, recovered last November, had died from the avian flu virus. What that statement did not tell us, is that hundreds more have died since then, presumably also from H5N1.


Whenever we see a report of a terrestrial or marine mammal that has been infected by (or has died from) HPAI H5N1 in the wild, we must assume there are likely others that were not located, or tested.


The current USDA report (see below) on H5N1 infected mammals (n=110) is almost certainly an undercount, as are reports from other countries.

Yesterday, Peru's custodial agency for protected natural areas - SERNANP - released the following (translated) statement citing nearly 600 sea lion deaths, and the deaths of tens of thousands of birds. Again, this is almost certainly an undercount, as many birds and mammals die unseen in remote or inaccessible areas.

There are also reports that a lion has died from H5N1 at a zoo in central Peru. Sadly, lions, tigers, and other captive large cats have a 20-year history of being infected with avian flu (see herehere, and here) since they are often fed raw chicken.


Although much of the toll avian flu is taking on wildlife (avian and mammalian) goes unreported, HPAI H5N1 continues to expand its global reach, and the number and type of non-avian hosts it can infect.


While none of this guarantees that H5N1 is on a trajectory to becoming a pandemic threat, it's far from being a reassuring sign that it won't.

https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/...t-585-sea.html

DJ...more spread in animals means more "reassortment" mixing with other virusses. 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 08 2023 at 1:58pm

Mammals infected in the USA by avian flu, as of the 6th January.


Black bear
Amur leopard
Bobcat
Bottlenose dolphin
Coyote
Fisher
Grey seal
Raccoon
Skunk
Striped skunk
Virginia opossum
Grizzly bear
Kodiak bear
Harbour seal
Red fox
ALT


and;


Replying to 
A fact you may be unaware of: Coyotes are EVERYWHERE and they are increasingly urban.  I’m not talking about the odd dumpster raiding loner here.  There are 100’s of PACKS of Coyotes in cities like Denver and Chicago.  All of the lower 48. This is big bad

-

[url]https://twitter.com/oldfshndanne/status/1623349839831465986/photo/1[/url] or https://twitter.com/oldfshndanne/status/1623349839831465986/photo/1 CoViD

[url]https://twitter.com/oldfshndanne/status/1623349839831465986/photo/2[/url] or https://twitter.com/oldfshndanne/status/1623349839831465986/photo/2 H5

Replying to  and 
Whales, plural? Because yes, they do get flu, but I thought they would be in deeper, cleaner water than the shoreline water contaminated by sick birds, which is presumably the avian flu source killing the sea lions and dolphins.

DJ...H5 (N1 most likely) may be a growing problem often missed...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 09 2023 at 12:08am

Here's an article in which the WHO tells people they must prepare for H5N1 since it's made the jump to mammals. 

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-11727769/Risk-humans-H5N1-bird-flu-remains-low-prepare-WHO.html

Those who got it wrong, for whatever reason, may feel defensive and retrench into a position that doesn’t accord with the facts.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote cobber Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 09 2023 at 6:08am

This is why I'm here. 

H5N1 is a MOFO!!!

This is in various mammals. Fox's and Bear have similar DNA to humans. Not too far off. 

If its spreading Mammal to mammal we need to be getting ready. 



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote roni3470 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 09 2023 at 8:28am

Hey everyone.  Obviously, we need to keep a close watch on this one, but i am not exactly sure how to do that and get accurate data.  Since the WHO is saying to watch this, I have to believe some things we don't know about are already happening.  Is there anyone particular on twitter or even on this site that is over seas or that will get information before other people do that we can all be following?  If so, please list out their twitter handles or youtube pages or whatever.  When Albert used to run this site, I felt like I would always be the first to know because he had so many connections......I just want it to be the same way now!

NOW is the Season to Know

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 09 2023 at 12:48pm

I think Dutch Josh is the man for this. He is great at research. I agree with you Roni that this is a bad turn of events. Heaven help us all if H1 N1 jumps to humans.

Those who got it wrong, for whatever reason, may feel defensive and retrench into a position that doesn’t accord with the facts.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote cobber Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 09 2023 at 8:27pm

The WHO....

They don't work for the betterment of constituents, that's for sure. Unelected officials kowtowing to rulers. Glorified yes men. So anything they say must be viewed with suspicion. I suspect they are arse covering atm. Possibly H5N1 is worse than reported.

I've been reading about minks spreading the virus to other minks. This is very problematic.  Minks share viruses with humans frequently. For example they shared Covid which mutated in the minks and was given back to humans. I remember reading about a group of scientists preferring minks for medical testing. This was a while back there was some reason why they were better than rats and mice. 


https://www.dmoose.com/blogs/latest-news/bird-flu-outbreak-puts-mink-farms-back-in-the-spotlight

While writing this, I just read the article above dated the 9th Feb. They said that H5N1 had an outbreak in a mink farm, October 2022 in Spain. 

Quote:   "The mink farm outbreak was particularly concerning because it appeared to spread from mink to mink, and the virus contained a mutation that may indicate adaptation to mammals"


This was in October. Why is the WHO reporting this four months later?  Something has happened. Suspicious


I might spend the weekend stocking up on toilet paper.. Gotta go

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 10 2023 at 12:39am
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 18 2023 at 3:06am
Bobcat first wild mammal in California to test positive for H5N1 bird flu

link to [url]https://www.sacbee.com/news/california/article272526409.html[/url] or https://www.sacbee.com/news/california/article272526409.html 








Zoonotic Mutation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Identified in the Brain of Multiple Wild Carnivore Species. "HPAI viruses were detected in multiple carnivore species, frequently with mutations indicative of mammalian adaptation"

link to [url]https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/12/2/168[/url] or https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/12/2/168 ; A Dutch study...

Abstract

Wild carnivore species infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 during the 2021–2022 outbreak in the Netherlands included red fox (Vulpes vulpes), polecat (Mustela putorius), otter (Lutra lutra), and badger (Meles meles). Most of the animals were submitted for testing because they showed neurological signs. In this study, the HPAI H5N1 virus was detected by PCR and/or immunohistochemistry in 11 animals and was primarily present in brain tissue, often associated with a (meningo) encephalitis in the cerebrum. In contrast, the virus was rarely detected in the respiratory tract and intestinal tract and associated lesions were minimal. 


Full genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these carnivore viruses were related to viruses detected in wild birds in the Netherlands. The carnivore viruses themselves were not closely related, and the infected carnivores did not cluster geographically, suggesting that they were infected separately. 


The mutation PB2-E627K was identified in most carnivore virus genomes, providing evidence for mammalian adaptation. 


This study showed that brain samples should be included in wild life surveillance programs for the reliable detection of the HPAI H5N1 virus in mammals. Surveillance of the wild carnivore population and notification to the Veterinary Authority are important from a one-heath perspective, and instrumental to pandemic preparedness.

DJ, "good news" not respitory (yet) bd news the mutation for better spread of H5N1 was detected in several samples....

[url]https://www.wired.com/story/the-bird-flu-outbreak-has-taken-an-ominous-turn/[/url] or https://www.wired.com/story/the-bird-flu-outbreak-has-taken-an-ominous-turn/ ;

THIS WEEK, ARGENTINA and Uruguay declared national health emergencies following outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, the fast-moving virus that destroys poultry flocks and wild birds, and for decades has been feared as a possible spark for a pandemic among people. That makes 10 South American countries that have recently marked their first-ever encounter with the virus, including Peru—where more than 50,000 wild birds died last fall, and more than  600 sea lions in January. Combine the sea lion infections with the revelation that H5N1 flu invaded a mink farm in Spain in October, and health authorities must now confront the possibility that the unpredictable virus may have adapted to threaten other species.

DJ, The Dutch study detected mutated H5N1 virus in several brain samples of carnivores in NL...

...."it is moving".....


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[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/south-america/h5n1-tracking-ab/peru-aa/964078-peru-h5n1-in-poultry-and-mammals?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/south-america/h5n1-tracking-ab/peru-aa/964078-peru-h5n1-in-poultry-and-mammals?view=stream ;

Translation Google

Avian flu: for the first time there has been a massive contagion from birds to mammals in Latin America

By Yvette Sierra Praeli on February 20, 2023

So far, more than 600 sea lions and more than 55,000 birds killed by the H5N1 virus have been registered in protected areas of Peru.

The presence of the virus dates back to the 1990s when it was found in places of poultry production. After 2020, a change in the dynamics of the virus occurred and it began to be detected more frequently in wild species.


First it was the seabirds that appeared dead on the coast of Peru due to the presence of the H5N1 virus or bird flu , but then the disease spread to mammals, particularly sea lions.

In Latin America, for the first time the jump of this virus from birds to mammals has been recorded in a massive way , indicate the scientists who are following the trail of this epidemic unleashed on almost the entire planet. "It is the first report in Latin America of contagion of avian influenza in many mammals at the same time, since until now the impact in Latin American countries had only been in birds, or some isolated case of a mammal," says Víctor Gamarra-Toledo. , researcher at the Natural History Museum (MUSA) of the National University of San Agustín de Arequipa.

Gamarra-Toledo explains that reports of contagion from birds to mammals had occurred in European countries such as Russia and Spain —in the latter country an outbreak of H5N1 in mink on a fur farm has recently been reported—, as well as in North America, but never It had previously been reported in Latin American countries. "The situation seems to be complicated because the virus could be adapting quite well."

Figures from the National Service for Natural Areas Protected by the State (Sernanp) indicate that more than 600 sea lions and 55,000 sea birds have been killed by the bird flu virus. However, these numbers correspond only to what is reported within protected areas.

The first cases of birds in Peru occurred in early November 2022. A few weeks after the first reports, on November 30, the National Agrarian Health Service (Senasa) declared a health emergency throughout the country for a period of 90 days.

During the period that the health emergency lasts, Senasa prohibited the movement of live domestic birds from places where the virus has been detected, the transfer of birds without a health certificate granted by this institution and the development of fairs or rooster events throughout the country. country, among other complementary measures.

The advance of bird flu

“The first report of massive death of birds, which was later confirmed to be due to avian flu, was between November 12 and 13, when Agrorural warned us of this mortality on Lobos de Tierra island, in the north, which is part of the Guaneras Islands, Islets and Points System National Reserve (RNSIIPG). At that moment we activated the health alert in coordination with Senasa”, says Deyvis Huamán, Director of Management of Sernanp Protected Natural Areas.

Huamán explains that the massive death affected, in a first wave, pelicans ( Pelicanus thagus ) and then continued with boobies ( Sula variegata ), until a third wave reached sea lions. “We have recorded dead birds in eight protected areas and wolves in 7 protected areas,” he adds.

The Sernanp official specified that until February 9 there was a record of 634 sea lions and 55,246 dead seabirds . The official indicates that this number must be greater than what was recorded because the measurements are not made every day or in the entire extension of the protected areas. What Huamán does specify is that the number of animals that die under normal circumstances is only between 10% and 20% of what is now being recorded with bird flu.

“It's a fairly aggressive subtype that obviously causes us concern. It started in birds, now it is in sea lions, and there is even a dolphin that, according to what we have been informed, has tested positive for avian flu", comments Huamán, therefore, he adds, it is important to avoid approaching animals that seem sick or have died because of the risk that the virus could be transmitted to people.


Huamán also shows his concern for what these massive deaths of species mean for conservation. In the case of pelicans, for example, the official says that many of those who have died in northern Peru were nesting . "There are at least two thousand abandoned nests," he says, but adds that pelican mortality is declining, so it is hoped that, in protected areas, as there is no intervention from human activities, these populations can recover. .

“What caught our attention the most were the Peruvian coastal seabirds, particularly the pelicans, because this virus killed about 20% of the known pelican population within protected areas. In four weeks, a very important part of the pelican population was lost, which is catastrophic for the species and its ecosystem," says Sergio Lambertucci, director of the Conservation Biology Research Group at the Biodiversity and Environment Research Institute (Inibioma). -Conicet), from the National University of Comahue. "20% mortality is a very high percentage for birds that live a long time and don't have a very high reproductive rate."

Lambertucci points out that the virus has also killed many boobies and guano birds in general, which means "a threat to the conservation of certain species" at least in this part of the planet. The most affected are usually waterfowl, including seabirds —continues Lambertucci—, including ducks, but there may be cases for many other species of birds. "In fact, at this moment we are doing a survey (inventory) of all the species of birds that have been affected by avian influenza on a global scale, which includes other groups such as scavengers, which feed on dead animals, and hunters. ", Add. The expert comments that for the moment there is no massive mortality, but cases have been reported among vultures, vultures and eagles.

Overcrowding of animals for food

The presence of this virus among animals is not recent, but dates back to the 1990s, when the virus was found in poultry production sites in Asian countries and then spread to other continents. Veterinarian Pablo Plaza, a researcher at the Biodiversity and Environment Research Institute (Inibioma-Conicet), explains that in recent years, after 2020, a change occurred in the dynamics of the virus and it began to be detected more frequently in wild species. .

“It is a virus mainly adapted to reproduce in birds, but in very close contact it can pass to mammals and even to humans, which is why poultry farm employees, and those who are in close contact with infected birds and other animals, are people who may be at risk,” adds Plaza.

For Plaza, it is important to analyze the behavior of the virus and its adaptation that it has had in the transmission to the sea lion, "because as the virus changes, a further step will be taken so that the risk of it being transmitted between beings arises. humans".

The vet also explains that it is a highly pathogenic virus —that is, highly contagious— that causes alterations in the lungs and even in the nervous system, therefore, animals infected with H5N1 die with signs of neurological and respiratory.

Until now, what was known about this virus is that it is not transmitted from individual to individual among mammals, and also that infections to humans are not frequent. However, transmission between European mink on a farm in Spain has recently been suggested. Gamarra-Toledo points out that from 2003 to 2021 only 850 cases of the H5N1 virus in humans have been reported, but the lethality has been 50%. "The lethality is worrisome."

Among the cases of animals that have died in Peru from bird flu is also a lioness at the Huancayo zoo in Junín. “This case occurred on January 23 and was confirmed because eagles that tested positive for bird flu died. And in Ecuador, a girl has been infected with the virus who had to be hospitalized.

Some migratory birds can carry the virus, therefore, the epidemic that began in Asia, continued through Europe and then to North America, now extends to the rest of the American continent. However, the origin of this problem is in poultry, Lambertucci mentions; that is, it is in the production systems of the animals that serve as food for people. “They can be chickens, geese, ducks, in general, many animals that are raised together and under stressful conditions, when the virus arrives it becomes the perfect cocktail for an epidemic to be generated. And if they are in areas where there are wild birds that can interact, such as a wetland or a lagoon, these individuals can be infected.

DJ [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peruvian_booby[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peruvian_booby (just to make clear "boobies" is a Peru type of birds...

Both H5N1 and CoViD seems to be a growing problem in mammals...(as far as I know CoViD in birds is limited-but it started in bats..."so it has wings"...). 

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Uh-oh The newly endemic Bird flu looks like it suppresses T cell function, as published by the journal of Virology They compared H1N1 and H5N1

link; [url]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163117/[/url] or https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163117/ ;

Seasonal influenza virus infections cause mild illness in healthy adults, as timely viral clearance is mediated by the functions of cytotoxic T cells. 

However, avian H5N1 influenza virus infections can result in prolonged and fatal illness across all age groups, which has been attributed to the overt and uncontrolled activation of host immune responses. 

Here, we investigate how excessive innate immune responses to H5N1 impair subsequent adaptive T cell responses in the lungs. 

Using recombinant H1N1 and H5N1 strains sharing 6 internal genes, we demonstrate that H5N1 (2:6) infection in mice causes higher stimulation and increased migration of lung dendritic cells to the draining lymph nodes, resulting in greater numbers of virus-specific T cells in the lungs. 

Despite robust T cell responses in the lungs, H5N1 (2:6)-infected mice showed inefficient and delayed viral clearance compared with H1N1-infected mice. 

In addition, we observed higher levels of inhibitory signals, including increased PD-1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression by cytotoxic T cells in H5N1 (2:6)-infected mice, suggesting that delayed viral clearance of H5N1 (2:6) was due to the suppression of T cell functions in vivo. Importantly, H5N1 (2:6)-infected mice displayed decreased numbers of tissue-resident memory T cells compared with H1N1-infected mice; however, despite the decreased number of tissue-resident memory T cells, H5N1 (2:6) was protected against a heterologous challenge from H3N2 virus (X31). 

Taken together, our study provides mechanistic insight for the prolonged viral replication and protracted illness observed in H5N1-infected patients.

DJ...H5N1 in mammals (the study looked at mice-translated the findings to humans) are "more severe" then H1N1 infections...DJ-My non expert view-H5N1 in mammals is a major risk for humans...


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 27 2023 at 4:10am
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote roni3470 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 28 2023 at 2:23pm

Well Josh....that is terrifying!  YIKES!!!!!

NOW is the Season to Know

that Everything you Do

is Sacred
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: February 28 2023 at 11:25pm

roni 3470,

 TMN also speculated on [url]https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/h5n1-avian-flu-news-researchers-are-concerned-that-a-lethal-reassortant-strain-involving-sars-cov-2-and-h5n1-avian-flu-virus-is-likely-to-emerge-soon[/url] or https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/h5n1-avian-flu-news-researchers-are-concerned-that-a-lethal-reassortant-strain-involving-sars-cov-2-and-h5n1-avian-flu-virus-is-likely-to-emerge-soon recombination of H5N1 and CoViD (both [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative-strand_RNA_virus[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative-strand_RNA_virus). 

The "animal kingdom of virusses" however is maybe even larger-partly unknown-then the "animal kingdom" we know....

Raj Rajnarayanan

@RajlabN
·
Interesting Recombinants: XBB.1.12 | signature mutation: S:Y453F (mainly in Europe) XBB.1.10 | S:A852V, S:R403K (USA/Japan) XBB.1.8 | XBB.1 with an insertion S:186insSGG (Denmark) twitter.com/RajlabN/status…

new mink-spread related mutations in CoViD recombinations was NOT supposed to be very likely (It was believed to be contained....but lots of countries still have mink-fur farms...). 

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/02/usda-update-on-h5n1-in-mammalian.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/02/usda-update-on-h5n1-in-mammalian.html ;

Since their last update 3 weeks ago, the USDA has added 10 additional mammalian infections with H5N1, with the bulk of those (n=7) coming from Colorado (noteonly 9 shown in the list below).  Species include bobcat (n=2), red fox (n=2 ), mountain lion (n=3 ), skunk (n=1) and American Black bear (n=2).

With the lone exception of a single infected Bottlenose Dolphin in Florida, all of the reports of mammalian infection have come from the northern tier of states.

While the full extent of H5N1's impact on wildlife is unknown, we are likely seeing only the tip of the iceberg.  

So far, unlike with SARS-CoV-2 in deer, we haven't seen signs of H5N1 transmitting efficiently in mammalian wildlife (possible, but unproven exceptions are in marine mammals). But once again, surveillance is extremely limited. 


For more on the risks from avian flu spilling over into wildlife, you may wish to revisit:


WOAH: Statement on Avian Influenza and Mammals


DJ...my view...You do not need human-to-human spread to end up in a "major H5N1" crisis. If insects, mammals can spread H5N1 we still could see a very high number of human H5N1 cases...the virus keeps mutating more with more cases...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 11 2023 at 9:44pm

DJ, Another interesting story [url]https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/h5n1-news-domestic-cats-infected-with-h5n1-avian-flu-in-austria--eu-authorities-covering-up-sporadic-humans-infections-in-europe[/url] or https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/h5n1-news-domestic-cats-infected-with-h5n1-avian-flu-in-austria--eu-authorities-covering-up-sporadic-humans-infections-in-europe (TMN)

In an animal shelter in Graz-Austria ([url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Schwarzenegger[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Schwarzenegger was from that area) an H5N1 infected chicken infected three cats...There is also a claim for a North German cat testing positive for H5N1....

The TMN story claims possible human H5N1 cases on fruit farm workers in Poland, poultry farm workers in Romania (both not far from Ukraine...with lots of refugees)...

DJ, without proof it is "just a story"...but cats testing positive-catching H5N1 from a chicken in the same room is alarming...

[url]https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mbio.03621-22[/url] or https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mbio.03621-22 another study on CoViD in the 8 (?) million New York City rats living in the seawage system...Rats come in contact also with H5N1-infected bird droppings, dead animals with H5N1...if the H5N1-virus is spreading in cats it is only a matter of time before we find it in cats...

[url]https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1016/j.jfms.2008.03.005[/url] or https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1016/j.jfms.2008.03.005 a 2008 study on H5N1 in cats...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 14 2023 at 11:39pm

Good overview of where we are now; [url]https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/h5n1-news-european-centre-for-disease-prevention-and-control-ecdc-reports-worrisome-mutations-spotted-on-circulating-h5n1-avian-flu-virus[/url] or https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/h5n1-news-european-centre-for-disease-prevention-and-control-ecdc-reports-worrisome-mutations-spotted-on-circulating-h5n1-avian-flu-virus 

In short most spread to mammals (still) from infected birds. However there seem to be some mammal to mammal spread in minks, sea-lions. DJ Lots of cases in mammals may go undetected, co-infections can create new variants. 

Several mutations in mammal H5N1-virusses were detected. In general risk for spread of H5N1 in humans still is seen as low-poultry farm workers need better protection, more testing etc...

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/03/british-columbia-press-release.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/03/british-columbia-press-release.html ;

Over the past few days we've looked at two separate studies on the spillover of HPAI H5N1 to mammals -  one from Canada on Friday, and one today from the U.S. - that between them reported on more than 100 infected terrestrial mammals. 

Although the number of mammals (terrestrial & marine) confirmed to have been infected globally is somewhere in the neighborhood of 4,000, it is highly likely we are only seeing the tip of the iceberg. 

Today the B.C. government announced the identification of 8 more peridomestic mammals - in this case skunks from residential areas of Richmond and Vancouver - infected with HPAI H5. 

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/03/paho-updated-epidemiological-alert-on.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/03/paho-updated-epidemiological-alert-on.html ;

With 16 countries (see chart below) in the Americas now reporting HPAI H5 either in wild birds, poultry, or mammals, the virus has already become remarkably well-entrenched across much of the Western Hemisphere.  

DJ...general picture; H5N1 (and limited other H5 variants) is spreading from birds into mammals...over time it will result in variants that spread between mammals and are of HIGH risk for humans...

We need better surveilance, testing, sequencing to detect what sort of mutations show up where....Reality most likely is funding for these kind of studies is decreasing due to inflation and insane wars...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 25 2023 at 9:54am

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/canada/h5n1-tracking-ag/971703-h5n1-virus-causes-new-symptoms-in-mammals[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/canada/h5n1-tracking-ag/971703-h5n1-virus-causes-new-symptoms-in-mammals ;

H5N1 virus causes new symptoms in mammals

Jean-Benoit Legault - The Canadian Press
10:01 a.m.
Dispatches

MONTREAL - Mutations suffered by the avian flu virus, H5N1, cause the appearance of new symptoms in certain mammals which are exposed to it, warns a new Canadian study.

The researchers found the virus in 40 Canadian carnivores, such as red foxes, striped skunks and mink that had possibly consumed the carcasses of dead or diseased birds.

If it is not so new that H5N1 can occasionally infect mammals, the symptoms observed this time are. Instead of causing the usual respiratory symptoms, the virus caused neurological symptoms; high amounts of H5N1 antigens have thus been detected in the brains of certain animals. Heart and lung damage was also noted.

The researchers also discovered that the virus has undergone mutations that could make it better able to infect mammals.

Wild birds had apparently introduced this strain of the virus to Canada in 2021-2022. Such “critical” mutations observed so soon after its arrival, warn the authors of the study published by the scientific journal Emerging Microbes Infections, highlight the need to monitor the virus.

"Influenza A viruses continually evolve and, consequently, accumulate adaptive mutations that facilitate virus replication, cross-species transmission, and pose pandemic risks to humans and animals," write the study authors. .

Some viruses are adapted very specifically to a host, recalled Dr. Levon Abrahamyan, who is a professor at the Animal Molecular Virology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Montreal. Others can mutate quickly and therefore adapt quickly to a new host.

"This is the case with coronaviruses and influenza viruses," he said. This is why these viruses are very important in emerging viruses.”

Another study, this one carried out in the United States, found the presence of H5N1 in 57 living mammals, including foxes and raccoons. Fifty-three of them had neurological symptoms, including seizures, tremors, balance problems and a loss of fear of humans.

It is these neurological symptoms “that concern us,” said Dr. Abrahamyan, adding that the same symptoms could strike a cat or dog that comes into contact with a dead or sick bird.

The neurological symptoms observed in Canadian raccoons, skunks and mink resemble those seen in seals and foxes infected with the H5N8 virus, the researchers recall. A recent study in the UK showed that this virus may have been transmitted directly to foxes and seals by swans with whom they were kept in captivity.

It cannot therefore be excluded, specify the authors of the Canadian study, that the mutations undergone by H5N1 now allow its transmission from mammal to mammal, for example through breast milk or simply during close contact in the lair.

This risk of transmission remains unclear, however, since the strain of virus responsible for the current outbreak lacks two characteristics that could facilitate it, the researchers said.

In contrast, the H5N1 variant that had infected two Arctic foxes and an Ontario fox had a (rare) mutation that could make the virus more virulent in a mammal, allowing it to evade part of the response immune system of its host and therefore cause more severe disease.

"This virus can infect mammals, but it needs a longer and broader evolutionary process for it to adapt to sustained transmission between mammals," said Dr Abrahamyan. There is no evidence of direct transmission between mammals.

The risk of transmission to humans is “really minimal” at the moment, he adds.

“A virus needs time and opportunity to become transmissible from mammal to mammal, from wild animal to domestic animal and from domestic animal to human,” he said. also:

It is a long and random process. But monitoring is very important, there is no doubt.”

https://www.ledevoir.com/depeches/78...des-mammiferes

--------------------------------------------

See also:

Emerg Microbes Infect . Characterization of neurotropic HPAI H5N1 viruses with novel genome constellations and mammalian adaptive mutations in free-living mesocarnivores in Canada

https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/...ores-in-canada

DJ..Could H5N1 - CoViD co-infection change the disease symptoms ? 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 15 2023 at 2:43am

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/04/articles/animals/cats/h5n1-avian-flu-in-cats/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/04/articles/animals/cats/h5n1-avian-flu-in-cats/ ;

The other day, I said that finding H5N1 avian flu in dogs was unsurprising. That also applies (probably even more so) to cats. We’ve known for years that cats are susceptible to H5N1, and since some cats spend a lot of time unsupervised outside and interact with (and eat) birds, they have lots of chances for (sometimes quite high) exposure.

-

Reports of this virus in cats aren’t overly surprising, and reflect rare spillover during a period when there’s an unprecedented amount of virus circulating in birds internationally. However, these rare cases still highlight the animal health risks from spillover infections, and the potential for domestic animals to act as a bridge between wildlife and humans.

So what should we do now?
Not really anything different from what we’ve already been recommending.

Keep domestic animals away from wildlife as much as possible. That’s tough with outdoor cats, but keeping cats indoors whenever possible (especially with avian flu is in the area) would be a good start. Some cats can’t stay indoors and there’s less we can do about them. Making sure outdoor cats are well fed helps but won’t stop them from hunting altogether, so we can’t eliminate the risk of exposure. Considering influenza infection in cats that have outdoor access and develop severe neurological or respiratory disease is important for surveillance purposes.

Can cats infect other cats or people with H5N1?

It’s hard to say. We generally assume that spillover infections are lower risk for transmission since the virus isn’t infecting its typical host. However, the first Nebraska cat had a really high viral burden in the brain, based on the PCR test results. It’s hard to say how much virus a cat with a central nervous system infection would shed in its respiratory secretions, but it’s still fair to assume there’s some degree of risk.

Should we take extra precautions when handling sick cats with outdoor access?

Sure. Based on what’s been reported to date, neurological disease is probably a big component of these infections, so we should already be taking precautions with these animals because rabies would be another possible cause of acute neurological signs. The same precautions will help prevent transmission of flu from such a cat. Outdoor cats with severe respiratory disease probably don’t have flu (since there are other more likely causes), but taking added precautions in veterinary clinics (e.g. keeping the cat isolated from other animals, use of PPE) and households (e.g. limiting close contact, attention to hand hygiene) are certainly reasonable.

 See also; [url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/the-pandemic-discussion-forum/960736-avian-flu-h5n1-discussion-news-case-lists-links-2022?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/the-pandemic-discussion-forum/960736-avian-flu-h5n1-discussion-news-case-lists-links-2022?view=stream ;latest;

Bird Flu Sample from Chilean Man Showed Some Signs of Adaptation to Mammals

These changes were unlikely to be enough to allow the virus to spread easily among humans, and the health risk to the public remains low, experts said.

snip

“We understand them to be a step on the path to adaptation to humans and increased risk to humans,” said Anice C. Lowen, an influenza virologist at Emory University. “So certainly it’s concerning to see them.”

  • Dig deeper into the moment.

But these mutations alone are probably not sufficient to produce a virus that spreads easily among humans, she added.

“Those genetic changes have been seen previously with past H5N1 infections, and have not resulted in spread between people,” Vivien Dugan, acting director of the influenza division at the C.D.C.’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, said in a statement.


more..https://www.nytimes.com/2023/04/14/s...lu-humans.html

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Please see:Chile - Ministry of Health reports the 1st case of H5N1 bird flu in a human - March 29, 2023

DJ, The risk is in the numbers...pets are close to humans-in that way if the pet has H5N1 it could easily spread into a human. However how many rats, other wild animals (foxes, wolves etc) may catch H5N1 and spread it to pets (via droppings, blood)...

The number of H5N1 bird cases is unprecedented...to be realistic-the spread of H5N1 in mammals also is unprecedented...so it is a ticking time bomb...

We may NOT KNOW mammal-to-mammal spread of H5N1 in wild animals-certainly when symptoms are mild...Healthcare is overstretched, people are "tired" of health issues...If farm animals (pigs...it is already widespread in poultry) would have H5N1 it would result in high costs...

So...outlook is bad...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 23 2023 at 12:37am

[url]https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2842567/v1[/url] or https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2842567/v1 ;

Here we show that multiple naturally circulating reassortant H5N1 viruses can replicate in primary human airway epithelial cells and cause lethal disease in multiple mammalian species. 

One isolate, A/Red Tailed Hawk/ON/FAV-0473-4/2022, efficiently transmitted by direct contact between ferrets, resulting in lethal outcomes. 

Historically, H5 subtype viruses do not transmit effectively between mammals, and recent studies of currently circulating H5N1 viruses showed mild infection outcome in ferrets without detectable transmission. 

While known specific mutations within the Eurasian lineage H5Nx viruses have allowed for increased viral fitness in mammals, reassortment of H5N1 viruses with NA lineage avian IAVs may be unpredictably (unexpectedly) contributing to further enhancements in virulence and transmissibility in mammals, with potential increased risk to humans. 

Our research has determined that certain, as yet uncharacterized, genetic signatures may be important determinants of mammalian adaptation and pathogenicity of these viruses. 

Ongoing surveillance of circulating HPAI A(H5N1) viruses across species, including humans, should be a top priority so as to promptly identify viruses that may have pandemic or outbreak potential in mammals.

DJ link from [url]https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-canadian-scientists-warn-about-existing-highly-lethal-h5n1-avian-influenza-reassortant-strains-circulating-in-north-america[/url] or https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-canadian-scientists-warn-about-existing-highly-lethal-h5n1-avian-influenza-reassortant-strains-circulating-in-north-america 

We miss most cases of H5N1 both in (wild) birds and (wild) mammals...so-we may have NO idea how bad the H5N1 situation is...Besides that other flutypes can become a growing risk (H5N6, H5N8 a.o.). 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 24 2023 at 8:22am

[url]https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/jvi.00213-23[/url] or https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/jvi.00213-23 ;

Accordingly, PB2-E627K adaptation emerges in species with strong pro-viral ANP32B proteins, such as humans and mice, while D701N is more commonly seen in isolates from swine, dogs, and horses, where ANP32A proteins are the preferred cofactor. Using an experimental evolution approach, we show that the passage of viruses containing avian polymerases in human cells drove acquisition of PB2-E627K, but not in the absence of ANP32B. Finally, we show that the strong pro-viral support of ANP32B for PB2-E627K maps to the low-complexity acidic region (LCAR) tail of ANP32B.
IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses naturally reside in wild aquatic birds. However, the high mutation rate of influenza viruses allows them to rapidly and frequently adapt to new hosts, including mammals. Viruses that succeed in these zoonotic jumps pose a pandemic threat whereby the virus adapts sufficiently to efficiently transmit human-to-human. The influenza virus polymerase is central to viral replication and restriction of polymerase activity is a major barrier to species jumps. ANP32 proteins are essential for influenza polymerase activity. In this study, we describe how avian influenza viruses can adapt in several different ways to use mammalian ANP32 proteins. We further show that differences between mammalian ANP32 proteins can select different adaptive changes and are responsible for some of the typical mutations that arise in mammalian-adapted influenza polymerases. These different adaptive mutations may determine the relative zoonotic potential of influenza viruses and thus help assess their pandemic risk.

DJ, Since (a.o.) H5N1 is very widespread by now in mammals we may miss a lot of info.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote judeusx Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 25 2023 at 9:09pm

Hi Josh,I have been following Flutalk since about 10 years on and off.Would like to point you to a thread on covid-19/H5N1, since start 2020,spot on.Some unique solutions like raw milk from bovine coronavirus vaccinated cows for long covid.  At the moment they are especially worried about the merge of covid old type reservoirs in animals with H5N1,and effects on the vaccinated population. The forum itself is suspicious,but this thread is GOLD ! Feel free to remove the link if you dont like it.  https://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message4940491/pg685

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 25 2023 at 9:49pm

judeeusx, interesting link...

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/pathological-findings/973261-heliyon-a-case-of-co-infection-covid-19-and-influenza-with-psychotic-symptoms[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/pathological-findings/973261-heliyon-a-case-of-co-infection-covid-19-and-influenza-with-psychotic-symptoms ;

This study was conducted with the aim of reporting a case of Co-infection COVID-19 and influenza with psychotic symptoms. In this study, the manifestations of a case of co-infection with COVID-19 and influenza with psychotic symptoms were discussed in Shahroud city in Iran in 2022. Based on this, the patient's laboratory, pathological and therapeutic findings were investigated. The patient, a 16-year-old boy, had symptoms of fever, chills, cough, body pain, and headache with seizures and delirium. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for covid-19 and influenza were positive, but no abnormalities were observed in laboratory variables and graphs. The patient was treated for psychotic disorders for 40 days and then recovered.

DJ Further link [url]https://www.cell.com/heliyon/fulltext/S2405-8440(23)02708-1?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2405844023027081%3Fshowall%3Dtrue[/url] or https://www.cell.com/heliyon/fulltext/S2405-8440(23)02708-1?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2405844023027081%3Fshowall%3Dtrue 

discussion part;

In Germany (2022), it was observed that exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic had put children under pressure in terms of mental health and had increased anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in them [

]. In Bandgladesh, exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic caused an increase in mental disorders in children, so that 2.7% of children suffered from severe mental disorders and 19.3% from moderate mental disorders [

]. In the study of Shekerdemian et al., who investigated the clinical symptoms in children infected with Covid-19, 3% of the children had seizures [

]. In general, COVID-19 disease has caused a variety of symptoms in patients. What is important in the present study is that the patient is young, has no history of underlying disease, and has not received any medication or vaccine for COVID-19, and hallucinations and delirium after treatment for COVID-19 and relief of symptoms associated with the disease persisted and needed to be treated for a longer period time.

DJ...This is an Iran human "Flu-Rona" case...(I did not see type of both virusses)..Point is we already may see mix of all kinds of diseases in humans...(well-because we do not test we do NOT see them...). 

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 26 2023 at 7:33pm
Those who got it wrong, for whatever reason, may feel defensive and retrench into a position that doesn’t accord with the facts.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 27 2023 at 6:18am

April 23 link [url]https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2842567/v1[/url][/url] or https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2842567/v1[/url] as a basis for main stream media

H5N1 poses a threat '100 times worse than Covid'

 with as links 

[url]https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/alarm-h5n1-bird-flu-efficently-spreads-ferrets-humans/[/url] or https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/alarm-h5n1-bird-flu-efficently-spreads-ferrets-humans/ 

or [url]https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-12015805/Fresh-pandemic-fears-virologists-discover-bird-flu-spreads-efficiently-ferrets.html[/url] or https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-12015805/Fresh-pandemic-fears-virologists-discover-bird-flu-spreads-efficiently-ferrets.html 

Bird flu spreads 'efficiently' in ferrets, scientists have warned amid growing fears it could spark another pandemic.

Experts called the discovery 'very concerning', claiming it shows that the pathogen is one step closer to spilling over into humans.

It's the first known study to clearly confirm that mammals can not only catch the disease individually but spread it to others as well.

DJ. "step-by-step" or "case-case-cluster-cluster-boom" it is long term developments, lack of testing, lots of spread in both birds, mammals and very likely humans being missed...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: May 05 2023 at 5:02am

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/05/usda-update-on-mammalian-h5-infections.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/05/usda-update-on-mammalian-h5-infections.html ;

As we've discussed repeatedly over the past few months (see here, here, and here), there is currently an unprecedented amount of HPAI H5 virus circulating in wild North American birds, and it has repeatedly spilled over into US mammalian wildlife (see USDA map above).

Last month we also saw several reports of domestic cats in the U.S. (see here, and here) - and 1 dog in Canada - contracting the virus.

Cats have a long history of being susceptible to HPAI H5 (see 2015's HPAI H5: Catch As Cats Can) and while less commonly reported (see 2010 study Study: Dogs And H5N1), canines are at risk as well. 

Since the majority of wildlife detections of H5N1 have come from peridomestic animals in urban or suburban settings, it makes sense to protect your cat and dog when they are outside. The CDC has some advice on keeping your pets, and yourself, safe from the virus.

This week Canadian Authorities reported to WOAH on WAHIS (Report # 4438) of their first detection of H5N1 in a feral cat (in Ontario), writing:

We report the first case of a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in a feral cat, as well as additional skunks, red foxes and a raccoon. Additional unusual species are reported grouped by province. The geographical marker is on the capital. For detailed and current information on high pathogenicity avian influenza cases in wildlife, please consult : http://www.cwhc-rcsf.ca/avian_influenza.php

As in the United States, there are large swaths of Canada where surveillance is limited, and very few cases have been reported. Among the 101 mammals reported by Canada, 40 have been striped skunks and 35 red foxes.

-

It is still unknown whether H5N1 has the `right stuff' to spark a pandemic in humans. We've been on the `brink' several times in the past, only to see the threat recede. 

But past performance is no guarantee of future results. 

So we monitor these spillovers into mammals with considerable interest. 

DJ, We very likely miss most cases...so do we miss 90% of H5N1 cases in mammals or is it 95%...or even 99,9% ????

[url]https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/video/2473785-vogelgriep-slaat-hard-toe-ze-liggen-hier-met-bosjes[/url] or https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/video/2473785-vogelgriep-slaat-hard-toe-ze-liggen-hier-met-bosjes a short newsclip from NL...lots of infected wildbirds early in the breeding season - with very likely more infections underway...Of course that will spread further in mammals...with the risk of all kinds of co-infections also with other types of flu...

We need better surveilance/monitoring...however it does not seem to be a priority...even when it is a growing pandemic risk.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: May 15 2023 at 12:26am

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/05/eurosurveillance-avian-influenza-new.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/05/eurosurveillance-avian-influenza-new.html 

[url]https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/04/articles/animals/birds/h5n1-avian-flu-and-animal-shelters/[/url] or https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2023/04/articles/animals/birds/h5n1-avian-flu-and-animal-shelters/ ;

As the unprecedented global H5N1 avian flu outbreak continues (with no real end in sight), and as we get the spring mix of migrating birds, mingling bird populations, more active wildlife and a pending crop of baby wild critters, concerns about spillover infections from birds to mammals are on the rise.


The current H5N1 influenza A virus has infected an impressive array of mammals. That doesn’t necessarily mean it’s worse (for mammals at least) than previous H5N1 influenza strains, as the higher number of spillover infections in mammals may just be because there are so many infected birds involved in this ongoing outbreak. However, it’s still concerning.

  • The good news is that the currently circulating strains are quite poorly adapted to infect and transmit between mammals.
  • The bad news is that could change.

There are various animal populations and situations to considered. One is animal shelters, because they handle lots of animals, many with outdoor access (and therefore access to wild birds) and with unknown histories. Diseases are common in shelter animals, and teasing out high-consequence infections from “routine” diseases is a daily challenge. Many shelters also take in birds, including wild birds and domestic birds like backyard poultry (a particularly high risk group when it comes to exposure and susceptibility to avian flu).

What do we need to think about when in comes to avian flu and animal shelters?

As with any emerging disease situation, answers to some common questions may change over time as we learn more and as the disease evolves, but here are some initial thoughts:

How common are H5N1 infections in mammals?

Spillover infections to mammals are rare. The exact incidence is impossible to say. Even if the spillover risk is really low, with millions of infected birds, we’re bound to see at least some transmission to other species – that part is just a numbers game. Some mammalian species seem at higher risk (e.g. foxes), maybe because of combinations of more frequent / higher exposure (e.g. scavenging infected birds) and greater inherent susceptibility. However, we probably need to consider all mammals to be at some degree of risk. At that same time, we have to remember that the vast majority of mammals with respiratory or neurological disease don’t have flu.

What are some flags in shelter animals that flu might be a concern?

There are two major things to think about here. One is risk factors for disease exposure, which are primarily related to the animal species (e.g. waterfowl or contact with waterfowl) and the local situation (e.g. lots of dead birds in the area).

The other factor to consider is the clinical status of the animal. We’re still learning about what this virus does to different species, and clinical signs can be highly variable. I’m going to be most concerned about animals with severe respiratory and/or neurological disease. There are other things that can cause these signs, and not all H5N1 infected animals will have these kinds of signs (especially early in disease), but a dog that’s in an area with dead birds that has respiratory disease and is starting to develop neurological disease would set off a lot of alarm bells in my head.

What’s the risk of spread of H5N1 from mammals in shelters to humans?

Human risks are low but not zero. The same applies to other mammal-to-mammal transmission. The currently circulating strains are still very poorly adapted to people and other mammals, so spillover infections are rare and transmission risks from a spillover infection (e.g. an infected cat infecting another animal or a person) are very low.

What’s the risk of spread of H5N1 between mammals in a shelter?

As for humans (another mammal), the risk is probably very low. This virus isn’t currently adapted for mammal-to-mammal transmission, so most mammalian spillover infections are probably “dead ends,” meaning the mammal can’t infect anyone else and the virus dies out when the animal recovers, or succumbs. However, “probably” dead ends is far from definitive. We have no real idea of the risk, because the infections are so rare and are difficult to study. Viral loads in some infected mammals (inferred by PCR results) seemed pretty high – high enough that I think transmission risk is plausible during some stages of infection in some animals.

So, we should assume that there is some degree of risk from any infected animal, albeit relatively low and probably fairly easy to mitigate.

Are there any issues with disinfection in a shelter if H5N1 may be present?

No. Surfaces pose limited risk (especially compared to handling an infected animal) and influenza virus doesn’t survive long outside the host. Any routine disinfectant will deactivate the virus – it’s just a matter of actually doing a good job of cleaning and disinfection so that the disinfectant can work.

How should H5N1 suspects be housed in a shelter?

Ideally, they aren’t. High risk cases (e.g. wild bird with neurological disease in an area with flu activity) are best triaged outside, and, if they are to be housed, for that to be done outside the main shelter. Setting up a secure outdoor triage area and housing area (even just for short term housing while testing is being done and more information is being gathered) can be invaluable, whenever possible. It helps protect individuals in the shelter, and also avoids any risk of other animals at the shelter potentially needing to be quarantined or euthanized by preventing exposure to infected animals.

DJ, I think the major risk for H5N1 (a.o. !!!) spread from birds into mammals is in the wild...However shelters offer lots of contacts between mammals and humans...H5N1 could spread pre/a-symptomatic...DJ-I think this also goes for pets at home ! 

If a pet has been in contact with an infected animal it may be spreadig the virus before symptoms show...Lots of stories also indicate symptoms could be mild or missing...

What about testing of animals for H5N1 (or other influenza A strains)?

Testing is great. Negatives are not a guarantee that an animal is truly not infected, but testing helps us identify infected cases so we know what’s going on, helps with getting compliance with infection control measures, and helps us to better understand the broader risks.

For domestic animals, testing is most often going to be at the shelter’s expense (despite the value of supporting testing in high risk situations). Shelters can burn through a lot of money testing every dog and cat with respiratory disease, so realistically testing would focus on animals with severe or atypical disease, especially respiratory and neurological disease combined, and where there’s a plausible chance of exposure to wild birds.

DJ, given the potential risks ad random testing could be done via public funds...better to detect spread in a very early stage-with lower risks/costs then later on...

What to test is still a grey area because we don’t have much data. At this point, I’d recommend oropharyngeal, nasal and rectal swabs (in that order of priority). Also remember that the lab test must be able to detect H5N1. Not all tests do that, so it’s important to ask about the test itself before sending off a sample.

Remember: Sample collection is probably one of the highest risk human-animal interactions. Everyone involved in sample collection should wear proper personal protective equipment (PPE), including face/eye protection.

DJ, on vaccines;

Should flu vaccination of shelter staff be recommended or required?

Vaccination of staff is a great recommendation for a few reasons. One is just because human flu is an important cause of disease. Current human flu vaccines likely provide little to no protection against H5N1, but they are still useful in the context of this outbreak because we don’t want to create situations where multiple flu viruses can get together and make a new flu virus. The more people with human flu that are exposed to animals with avian flu, the greater the risk of multiple flu viruses recombining. Odds of that are very low in a shelter but they’re not zero, so it’s great to have high flu vaccine coverage of staff.

Related to that, people with potential human flu shouldn’t be at a shelter, for the sake of both routine protection of other personnel and to avoid making the shelter a human/avian flu mixing vessel.

What about vaccination of animals against H5N1?

For dogs, we have H3N2 and H3N8 vaccines, but those would offer little to no protection against H5N1. As with people, we want to avoid different flu viruses getting together in the same animal, so having the dog population protected against canine flu is never a bad idea. However, given vaccine availability issues, limited impact on virus shedding, the time required to have protective immunity from the two dose series, and cost considerations, it’s pretty low yield in this scenario.

That’s it for this morning’s flu thoughts. There will probably be a “Part 2” since I’m sure I’ll realize I missed a lot of questions as soon as I post this.

DJ, we will see more H5N1 (etc) spread both in mammals and humans...point is to contain it the best we can !

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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