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H7N9 spread in camels-Inner Mongolia (???)

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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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    Posted: March 15 2023 at 1:40am

DJ [url]https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-news-chinese-scientists-shockingly-discovers-that-h7n9-avian-virus-has-mutated-and-infects-camels-in-inner-mongolia-now[/url] or https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-news-chinese-scientists-shockingly-discovers-that-h7n9-avian-virus-has-mutated-and-infects-camels-in-inner-mongolia-now only mentions one detection of H7N9 in a camel in 2020...

[url]https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/spectrum.01798-22[/url] or https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/spectrum.01798-22 ;

The H7N9 subtype of influenza virus can infect birds and humans, causing great losses in the poultry industry and threatening public health worldwide. However, H7N9 infection in other mammals has not been reported yet. In the present study, one H7N9 subtype influenza virus, A/camel/Inner Mongolia/XL/2020 (XL), was isolated from the nasal swabs of camels in Inner Mongolia, China, in 2020. Sequence analyses revealed that the hemagglutinin cleavage site of the XL virus was ELPKGR/GLF, which is a low-pathogenicity molecular characteristic. The XL virus had similar mammalian adaptations to human-originated H7N9 viruses, such as the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) Glu-to-Lys mutation at position 627 (E627K) mutation, but differed from avian-originated H7N9 viruses. The XL virus showed a higher SA-α2,6-Gal receptor-binding affinity and better mammalian cell replication than the avian H7N9 virus. Moreover, the XL virus had weak pathogenicity in chickens, with an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.01, and intermediate virulence in mice, with a median lethal dose of 4.8. The XL virus replicated well and caused clear infiltration of inflammatory cells and increased inflammatory cytokines in the lungs of mice. Our data constitute the first evidence that the low-pathogenicity H7N9 influenza virus can infect camels and therefore poses a high risk to public health.
IMPORTANCE H5 subtype avian influenza viruses can cause serious diseases in poultry and wild birds. On rare occasions, viruses can cause cross-species transmission to mammalian species, including humans, pigs, horses, canines, seals, and minks. The H7N9 subtype of the influenza virus can also infect both birds and humans. However, viral infection in other mammalian species has not been reported yet. In this study, we found that the H7N9 virus could infect camels. Notably, the H7N9 virus from camels had mammalian adaption molecular markers, including altered receptor-binding activity on the hemagglutinin protein and an E627K mutation on the polymerase basic protein 2 protein. Our findings indicated that the potential risk of camel-origin H7N9 virus to public health is of great concern.

See also [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H7N9[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H7N9 ;

Epidemiology[edit]

Most human infections with avian influenza viruses, including Asian H7N9 virus, occur after exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments. Asian H7N9 viruses continue to circulate in poultry in China. Most reported patients with H7N9 virus infection have had severe respiratory illness (e.g., pneumonia). Rare instances of limited person-to-person spread of this virus have been identified in China, but there is no evidence of sustained person-to-person spread. Some human infections with Asian H7N9 virus have been reported outside of mainland China, Hong Kong or Macao but all of these infections have occurred among people who had traveled to China before becoming ill. Asian H7N9 viruses have not been detected in people or birds in the United States.[33]

DJ, The study indicate the camel did catch the H7N9 infection most likely from a human/mammal source -NOT from an infected bird !!!!

More testing will be on its way to see if more mammals could be infected with H7N9...[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H7N9#Human_to_human_transfer_of_virus[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H7N9#Human_to_human_transfer_of_virus ;

In a study published in July 2013, an international team led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, one of the world's leading experts on avian flu, reported that while avian flu viruses typically lack the ability to transfer through respiratory droplets, studies using ferrets, who like humans infect one another through coughing and sneezing, showed that one of the H7N9 strains isolated from humans can transmit through respiratory droplets. Kawaoka says, “H7N9 viruses combine several features of pandemic influenza viruses, that is their ability to bind to and replicate in human cells and the ability to transmit via respiratory droplets.” Further, because several instances of human-to-human infection are suspected, Kawaoka stated that “If H7N9 viruses acquire the ability to transmit efficiently from person to person, a worldwide outbreak is almost certain since humans lack protective immune responses to these types of viruses.”[21]

DJ, since CoViD, flu is "going wild" H7N9 may be able to spread without being identified...get misdiagnosed.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 15 2023 at 12:00pm

Well I learnt something today. I had no idea they had camels in Mongolia. Who knew?


Those who got it wrong, for whatever reason, may feel defensive and retrench into a position that doesn’t accord with the facts.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 15 2023 at 10:13pm

I knew [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camel#/media/File:Camel_world_population.png[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camel#/media/File:Camel_world_population.png there were camels (and deserts) in Asia...not how many...

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camel#Distribution_and_numbers[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camel#Distribution_and_numbers ;

There are approximately 14 million camels alive as of 2010, with 90% being dromedaries.[146] Dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals (mostly living in the Horn of Africa, the SahelMaghrebMiddle East and South Asia). The Horn region alone has the largest concentration of camels in the world,[22] where the dromedaries constitute an important part of local nomadic life. They provide nomadic people in Somalia[18] and Ethiopia with milk, food, and transportation.[116][147][148][149]

Over one million dromedary camels are estimated to be feral in Australia, descended from those introduced as a method of transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries.[150] This population is growing about 8% per year;[151] it was estimated at around 700,000 in 2008.[135][146][152] Representatives of the Australian government have culled more than 100,000 of the animals in part because the camels use too much of the limited resources needed by sheep farmers.[153]

A small population of introduced camels, dromedaries and Bactrians, wandered through Southwestern United States after having been imported in the 19th century as part of the U.S. Camel Corps experiment. When the project ended, they were used as draft animals in mines and escaped or were released. Twenty-five U.S. camels were bought and exported to Canada during the Cariboo Gold Rush.[94]

The Bactrian camel is, as of 2010, reduced to an estimated 1.4 million animals, most of which are domesticated.[42][146][154] The Wild Bactrian camel is a separate species and is the only truly wild (as opposed to feral) camel in the world. The wild camels are critically endangered and number approximately 1400, inhabiting the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in China and Mongolia.[12][155]

DJ, So the wild camels in China/Mongolia is around 1,400...limits the problem maybe...unless it spreads to other mammals/humans...

BTW-MERS also camel linked....

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 16 2023 at 12:25am

so I wonder if they have MERS there? That's a camel to human disease.


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