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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Niger
    Posted: August 09 2023 at 11:44pm

DJ-Lots of discussion on "what is next for Niger"...[url]https://southfront.org/niger-suspends-uranium-gold-exports-amid-rumors-of-imminent-french-military-intervention/[/url] or https://southfront.org/niger-suspends-uranium-gold-exports-amid-rumors-of-imminent-french-military-intervention/ ....

[url]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-X0lGBkM7QE[/url] or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-X0lGBkM7QE The Duran;

Nuland, 'frank and difficult' meeting in Niger

with Alexander Mercouris/AM;

-The West may reinstate a "ruler" via proxy

-No Wagner forces (yet)  in Niger...

[url]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3Qbeh4FJds[/url] or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3Qbeh4FJds Military Summary-at the end of the video-claiming Wagner forces are in Niger..

There are also claims French aircraft went into Niger airspace without Niger permission...Niger told the 1000+ French (colonial-DJ) forces to leave Niger within a month...

[url]https://halturnerradioshow.com/index.php/en/news-page/world/second-proxy-war-brewing-between-us-russia-niger-africa[/url] or https://halturnerradioshow.com/index.php/en/news-page/world/second-proxy-war-brewing-between-us-russia-niger-africa 

I in part did write on Niger in NATO-BRICS conflict...but it may deserve its own place...

-Is the "Niger-crisis" in part linked with the pandemic/healthcrises? 

DJ-There are "claims" Africa was "not hit very hard" by CoViD. Of course if lots of people die from other diseases, there is hardly any testing, one could come up with "claims" CoViD was not such a big problem in Africa..."Ebola" -also hitting parts of Africa (West Africa, DRC) indeed were even worse...

Africa is very rich in resources...however most of that wealth goes to "the west"...some to a pro-west corrupt elite...keeping Africa poor...

-BRICS may offer a way out of poverty...there is an alternative for western slavery and exploitation/genocide...

[url]https://southfront.org/united-states-of-africa-forming-to-lead-world-against-u-s-allied-empire/[/url] or https://southfront.org/united-states-of-africa-forming-to-lead-world-against-u-s-allied-empire/ ;

Written by Eric Zuesse

A potential United States of Africa is now in early stages of formation after a mutiny by Niger’s Presidential Guards immediately expanded into a coup by Niger’s Army on July 26th and overthrew that country’s ‘democratically’ elected U.S.-and-French stooge — and very corrupt — President Mohamed Bazoum. The Nigeran public immediately responded to this coup with massive cheering demonstrations throughout the country, supporting as their liberators the team that was freeing their land from the exploitative grip of the imperialists: France backed by America. Niger, like the other African countries that use the French franc as their currency, has been funding France’s Government and Niger’s own aristocracy, by means of a complex mechanism called “the CFA franc” in which, as the CNN U.S. propaganda network buried in one of their news-reports

Françafrique has often been criticized for perpetuating neo-colonial practices. For example, few things have sparked more controversy than the Central African franc or CFA, a currency which is used by 14 nations in West and Central Africa including Niger.

Countries using CFA francs are required to store 50% of their currency reserves with the Banque de France, and the currency is pegged to the euro. While Paris asserts that the system promotes economic stability, others say it allows France to exert control over the economy of the countries using it.

So, basically, whatever is shipped abroad by any of those countries, the proceeds, in effect, go 50% to France, and only the other 50% goes to Niger or the other source-country.

-

In the subsequent days, after the coup, Niger entered into discussions with Mali, Guinea, and Burkina Faso, which already previously had had coups for freedom from their imperialist masters that the U.S. Government leads. Meanwhile, the U.S. regime’s efforts — which are being led by Victoria Nuland, who had masterminded the U.S. regime’s successful coup that in February 2014 grabbed and absorbed Ukraine into the U.S. empire (and here is the smoking-gun piece of evidence on that) so as to get it into NATO as the nearest bordering country from which to attack The Kremlin and decapitate Russia, which is only 317 miles away from Ukraine — appear thus far to be running into an unwillingness of Governments near to Niger, to shed their peoples’ blood to invade Niger, whose public are determined to achieve freedom from their foreign exploiters and will not give up short of a very bloody war, which would embarrass America and its ‘democracies’ and so strip away that ‘democratic’ mask, which the U.S. regime uses in order to fool publics everywhere.

On August 3rd, CNN headlined “Africa’s latest coup is a headache for the West and an opportunity for Russia”, and pretended that the aggression here, and the opposition to democracy, came from Russia against the United States, instead of from the United States against Russia.

I have previously explained these events in my 6 March 2023 “The Transformative Present Moment in History”.

Whatever the outcome will be from the current events in Niger, it will be a part of that story, and maybe a very important part of it. However, the time is too early to predict what that outcome will turn out to be. In any case, that story began in 1945, when the anti-imperialist U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt became replaced by the pro-imperialist President Harry Truman, who shaped the post-WW-II international order, which has lasted till now, and which appears to be soon reaching its climax.

If Victoria Nuland will not be able to turn the screws against Niger’s new leaders in the way that her bosses, Antony Blinken, and, above him, Joe Biden, are hoping — nor to get ‘the free world’ to invade and conquer Niger as they hope — then a successful model will have become established which might be copied by other slave-nations, by means of which they, too, might likewise break away, and free themselves, from their imperial masters, the U.S.-and-‘allied’ (vassal-nation) empire: the U.S. aristocracy, and its foreign dependency ones. If so, it would terminate the hegemon’s hegemony. It would end the Truman-initiated global system (which aspires to conquer — absorb into its imperial web — all nations, and especially Russia and China). So: the stakes are huge in Niger now.

Investigative historian Eric Zuesse’s new book, AMERICA’S EMPIRE OF EVIL: Hitler’s Posthumous Victory, and Why the Social Sciences Need to Change, is about how America took over the world after World War II in order to enslave it to U.S.-and-allied billionaires. Their cartels extract the world’s wealth by control of not only their ‘news’ media but the social ‘sciences’ — duping the public.

DJ, Neo-liberalism/conservatism-with profits as the only value-in my view was the motor behind the CoViD pandemic. Any (created) crisis is a chance for a rich elite to even get more rich...Even if it means killing millions...

NATO and nazi's have the same -evil- roots...Military-Industrial-Financial-Complex...money counts [url]https://www.moonofalabama.org/2023/08/a-donor-based-election-system-can-not-be-fair.html[/url] or https://www.moonofalabama.org/2023/08/a-donor-based-election-system-can-not-be-fair.html not votes...

------------

Niger may give us an indication on a willingness to prioritize human live above profits...Human survival or global destruction...Long term development for most or short term profits for a few.

Also in that way Niger is linked to the worsening global health crises...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 11 2023 at 2:27am

DJ, Niger may be -in many ways- a "test case"...

-What role BRICS can/will play...Does China find a diplomatic way out-in that way increasing its role...Russia did NOT support this Niger coup...However may "welcome an oppertunity" to "play some role"...

-NATO may say the want to restore their puppet "democrazy"....giving away Niger oil, gold etc. to France, EU almost for free...But a major war in NW Africa may increase further energy costs;

Niger main supplier of uranium, Nigeria main oil producer...

-OPEC+ has Russia as the "+"...Russia also a major uranium source-still selling uranium a.o. to the US (for over 1 billion US$ per year...). 

[url]https://www.vtforeignpolicy.com/2023/08/niger-coup-big-escalation/[/url] or https://www.vtforeignpolicy.com/2023/08/niger-coup-big-escalation/ has an overview of info (VT is racist...I do not agree with the words used often...) ;

Algeria newspaper indicates UAE role in Niger coup

French-language Algerian newspaper Le Soir d’Algerie reported that the United Arab Emirates (UAE) may have played a role in the attempted coup against Niger’s President Mohamed Bazoum.

The newspaper pointed out that all eyes were on the current Niger ambassador to the UAE, who was the army’s chief of staff before Bazoum dismissed him.

The newspaper noted that the presence of the former chief of staff of the Niger army in the UAE may have given him the “boldness” to turn the table on Bazoum, especially if he was supported by senior officials in Abu Dhabi.

This report comes in the wake of an unprecedented attack by the Algerian media on the Emirati role in the region. Algerian newspaper El Khabar published information quoting so-called “reliable” sources.

It indicated that the UAE had committed “hostile acts” against Algeria, most notably providing Moroccan authorities with a spy programme to use on the country and making attempts to drag the countries of the Maghreb region towards normalisation with Israel to weaken Algeria. The newspaper described Abu Dhabi as “the capital of confusion” in its article.

So would some people in the EUA "win" a share in uranium/gold in Niger ????

Uranium: the balance of power in and around Africa

Extract by article published on Russia Today by Andrey Maslov, Director of the Centre for African Studies, HSE University and Vsevolod Sviridov, expert with the Centre for African Studies, HSE University

Niger is an important but not a key player in the global uranium market. In 2022, it produced 2,000 tons of uranium (representing 4% of global production and placing it 7th in the world, just below Russia with its 2,500 tons). In recent years, uranium production in Niger has declined as the Akuta mine (operated by the French company Orano) depleted its reserves and finally closed in 2021. The major uranium assets in Niger are divided among four joint ventures. Orano is the largest shareholder in three of them, while Chinese companies (the state-owned CNUC and the private investment group ZXJOY Invest) control the fourth. There are also joint ventures with Spanish (ENUSA) and South Korean (KEPCO) companies. The Nigerien government is represented in the joint ventures through the state-owned company SOPAMIN.

For Niger, the sale of uranium is the main source of export revenue and hard currency. Uranium exports account for about $200 million annually (up to 30% of Niger’s total export value). Most of this (up to 100% in some years) is shipped to France, with some shipments also going to Canada, Spain and Japan. 

Will Niger nationalize mining ?...Maybe try to find a way to deal with it with some countries...going for joined shares...so Niger gets more money out of its mines ? 

Another war may cost more...

Over the road from Konbo-Niger/Benin border to Niamey-Niger capitol is almost 300 kilometers...The US base 201 SE of Agadez is about 900 kilometers NE of Niamey..over 14 hours drive by car...

"Sanctions against Niger are starting to work.  There is not enough medicine, food, electricity is missing - even more than before," - EU Special Envoy Emanuela del Re.   All imports into Niger take place between ports in Nigeria and Benin, countries whose presidents are controlled by France and the United States, which means China can't deliver for now. This is pure genocide against one nation

DJ, in the last decades "the NATO west" did show they do not care about human lives...Niger is most Islamic...NATO did kill over 1 million Muslims...in Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Libya...so NATO has "no problem" making live for people in Niger even harder...

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5% FOR NIGER, 95% FOR FRANCE One of the first things the new leadership in Niger has done is halt uranium exports to France. The ex-coloniser has relied on exploitatively cheap imports of the stuff for decades to keep its power grid running.  It’s been getting away with this racket thanks largely to kickbacks and, alas, complicit African officials. That, as 9 out of 10 Nigeriens lack access to electricity in the poverty-afflicted nation.  It’s one reason the coup has seen wide popular support. Exploitation is no laughing matter, of course, but humour can help make a point. So here’s a little skit we did a while back to explain just how that racket has worked until now - how France has kept Niger in poverty, despite being dependent on its resources.  There is no excuse for poverty in a country as endowed as Niger and a continent as blessed as Africa.

Of course "western decolonization" only changed the way non-western countries got exploited...

[url]https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/[/url] or https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/ 

Niger population 27,2 million...only 17% live in an urban area...Medium age 15...births per woman 6,7....Nigeria population is 223,8 million...average age 17, urbanization 54% 

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niger[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niger former French colony...with still "Franc" Euro linked currency...Nigeria was a UK colony...

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigerian_Civil_War[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigerian_Civil_War DJ-At present Nigeria is already divided between a "christian" south and "islamic" north...Getting involved in Niger may worsen the tensions in Nigeria...Lagos [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagos[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagos 

The estimated population for Lagos was more than 26 million in 2023[citation needed]; and around 30 million for the Lagos metropolitan area. Lagos is the most populous urban area in Africa.[13] Lagos was the national capital of Nigeria until December 1991 following the government's decision to move their capital to Abuja in the centre of the country. Lagos is a major African financial centre and is the economic hub of Lagos State and Nigeria at large. The city has been described as the cultural, financial, and entertainment capital of Africa, and is a significant influence on commerce, entertainment, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, and fashion. Lagos is also among the top ten of the world's fastest-growing cities and urban areas.[21][22] The megacity has the fourth-highest GDP in Africa[2][23] and houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent.[24][25][26] The Lagos metropolitan area is a major educational and cultural centre in Sub Saharan Africa.[27] Due to the large urban population and port traffic volumes, Lagos is classified as a Medium-Port Megacity.[28]

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 11 2023 at 10:21pm

DJ, Africa has suffered more than enough for "white wars" and colonial exploitation. The last thing Africa needs is to become part of a NATO-BRICS global war...

[url]https://tass.com/politics/1659435[/url] or https://tass.com/politics/1659435 

"There will be a risk of famine and spread of disease, which will hit first of all the most vulnerable social strata, the poorest," Alexander Shipilov noted

MOSCOW, August 11. /TASS/. Military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Niger, should it take place, may last long and bring about a large-scale humanitarian crisis in Africa, Alexander Shipilov, a researcher at the Institute of General History under the Russian Academy of Sciences, senior lecturer at the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the People’s Friendship University of Russia has told TASS.

"There is a rather high risk of a humanitarian catastrophe, if such an operation does take place, because it may last for a long while. It would become a new round of destabilization and chaos in the region, because ECOWAS forces should not expect a quick victory in case of an invasion. Their rival is strong enough and well prepared to fight in these conditions. And, accordingly, there is support for Niger from the neighboring countries of the region," Shipilov said.

According to the analyst, such a scenario of escalation would result in a serious regional crisis, which will "entail the greatest possible direct risks for the civilian population."

"There will be a risk of famine and spread of disease, which will hit first of all the most vulnerable social strata, the poorest," Shipilov noted. He emphasized that these negative factors would lead to higher mortality in the region and a significant growth in migration from Africa.

Risk of conflict


According to Shipilov, the countries in the region and the neighboring states will seek to avoid this crisis by all means. He believes that the threat of an ECOWAS invasion has so far been used by a number of interested states for political bargaining with Niger.

"I think that the stakes keep going up in the current bargaining, as part of the ongoing pressure," the expert said.

He drew attention to the fact that the position of the new authorities in Niger remained "quite vulnerable against the backdrop of the problems that arise from the economic blockade." "Niger is a land-locked country. In terms of many critical supplies it depends on trade with Nigeria and other neighboring states, so the pressure has turned out to be quite painful," Shipilov explained.

The analyst suspects that guarantees to preserve the influence of France and the United States in Niger was one of the conditions put forward to the coup participants during the bargaining.

"At the same time, domestic political concessions for those who seized power in Niger would be more sensitive, and they are not ready to make them now. For now, everything is developing according to the escalation scenario."

At the same time, Shipilov is of the opinion that an armed conflict "will not be a solution for the ECOWAS countries or Niger," as well as for "the Western mediators, who in recent days have been trying to persuade the new leadership in Niamey to make political concessions."

Role of France and US

"Of course, there is a role of external actors in this crisis," Shipilov said. He recalled that France and the United States still retained partial military and economic presence in Niger, although their resources in the region are "quite limited."

At the same time, the expert believes that "Western forces will not want to seriously interfere in this situation."

"France, for example, is not actively seeking to do so now, although Paris had a presence on the ground," he pointed out. "As for the US military who were in the country, the issue of their evacuation is now being addressed.

"To a much greater extent, the crisis situation in Niger is due to intra-state problems and intra-regional processes than to the more global agenda of the great powers that may have some interests there," Shipilov believes. "I would not exaggerate the importance of the external factor."

Possibility of military operation

Ivorian President Alassane Ouattara said upon his return from a summit in Abuja on August 10 that the ECOWAS leaders had agreed to launch a military operation in Niger "as soon as possible." He said, quoted by the AFP, that the chiefs of staff would hold more meetings to finalize details. Ouattara emphasized that Cote d'Ivoire would contribute a battalion of 850 to 1,100 men for the operation and that Benin, Nigeria and other countries would participate, too.

The Associated Press reported on the same day that the leaders of Niger’s military had allegedly told US acting First Deputy Secretary of State Victoria Nuland that they intended to kill the country's ousted president, Mohamed Bazoum, in the event neighboring states launched military intervention in an attempt to reinstate him.

In late July, a group of military officers from Niger's Presidential Guard mutinied and announced the removal of President Bazoum. The National Council for the Safeguard of the Homeland, led by the Guard’s commander, Abdourahmane Tchiani, was formed to govern the country. Bazoum remains in custody at his residence.

DJ-I hope African leaders show more wisdom than the NATO "leaders"....

The main reason Africa still is this poor is exploitation by non-African (most) companies. They "buy an elite" to get African resources at very low prices. 

Both "the west" and BRICS may have to come up with better offers...African countries may nationalize foreign (mining) companies...but may not have the "ways" to use the outcome. In some years 100% of Niger uranium goes to France...France is using nuclear "low cost" energy; exporting it to the rest of the EU...France may not be willing to buy uranium from a Niger-run company...

DJ-My view; the "neo-liberal market economy" model may bring lower prices on a global market at the cost of the poorest ending up even more poor...

In NL news privatizing UK water companies did see 72 billion UK pounds go to "investors/billionaires" while leaving the water companies with a debt of 60 billion UK pound...So consumers end up paying more for clean water while UK water companies end up paying most of their income to share holders and debts..NOT for doing their job !

The idea of turning planet Earth into a short term way of getting rich for a few is close to a mental illness...it will kill us all-but most people still vote for politics (for sale)  pushing for more privatizing-short term profits...

One of the basic conflicts between NATO and BRICS is on the role governments have to play for their citizens...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 11 2023 at 11:23pm

Peak Prosperity [url]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXJ4Ux5NaXU[/url] or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXJ4Ux5NaXU ;

Context is everything.  

The US and especially the Deep State denizens of the US State Department are unable to grasp the recent history that has propelled many African nations to prefer partnership with Russia and/or China. 

It’s not a very difficult story to understand; the US and European colonialist countries (France, the Dutch, and the UK) have a long and quite grotesque history of treating African peoples very badly. Somehow we’ve forgotten that, but the people of Africa sure haven’t.  Funny how that works.

 For Part 2: https://peakprosperity.com/biden-risk...

DJ, Africa is the richest continent of the planet but it is over-exploited by a racist "civilized" west...Chris Martenson refers to Libya where NATO did bring civil war and slave markets (like NATO did bring to Syria, Iraq) destroying a country with relative good public education, healthcare...

Gadaffi in Libya was murdered by NATO for thinking of a Pan-African gold based dinar replacing the US$....

DJ-We may be seeing an African revolution...only the west is unable to see it that way blinded by its racist colonial view...

Pandemics are linked to destruction of public healthcare...the same western blindness not able to understand why Africa is moving to BRICS did cause pandemics..,

The "only value" for the west is money...in fact a sign of western poverty...

[url]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUjkhub5x4Q[/url] or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUjkhub5x4Q Hindustan Times-India;

Russia has issued a big warning to the West-backed ECOWAS bloc as it warned against any military intervention in Niger. The Russian foreign ministry issued a statement saying that a military solution to the crisis in Niger could lead to a protracted confrontation in that African country, and to a sharp destabilisation of the situation in the Sahara-Sahel region as a whole. This as the ECOWAS bloc of West African countries approved deployment of standby forces as Junta continues to defy them and their backers in the west. Watch the video for more.

DJ; Also Italy/meloni is blaming France for over-exploiting Africa...resulting in Italy dealing with a refugee crisis...Africans facing starvation because of western exploitation. The UK did put refugees on a boat with legionella disease...EU did sign an agreement with Tunesia...Tunesia now dropping black Africans in the Libyan desert to die...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 20 2023 at 11:55pm

[url]https://halturnerradioshow.com/index.php/en/news-page/world/russian-transport-jet-arrives-in-mali-wagner-pmc-forces-deploying-to-niger[/url] or https://halturnerradioshow.com/index.php/en/news-page/world/russian-transport-jet-arrives-in-mali-wagner-pmc-forces-deploying-to-niger ;

A Russian plane has landed in Bamako airport, Mali carrying hundreds of Wagner Private Military Company (PMC) fighters it allegedly picked up from Syria. Wagner is on its way to Niger to protect that country from "outside forces."

Wagner PMC has recruited thousands of veterans of the Syrian civil war, mostly men who fought on behalf of the Syrian government and defeated ISIS, Al-Qaeda and the FSA. These men have incredible combat experience against terrorists.

Syria is one of the first places where Wagner PMC proved its combat superiority to the whole world. Without their efforts, the Syrian president would’ve gotten the Gaddafi treatment from the west a long time ago. But he prevailed, thanks to RUSSIA and its elite fighting force, Wagner PMC.

Upon arriving Niger, Wagner reportedly told the new Niger administration never to worry about any foreign army on Niger soil and specifically assured the leadership that Wagner will take on the Americans head on, if they ever dare to get involved in the conflict with ECOWAS, or try to deploy their drones. 

At the moment, there are about 5,000 RUSSIAN funded volunteer fighters in AFRICA: They are mainly active in Mali, Libya, Sudan, Central African Republic, Mozambique, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Wagner will undertake the protection of Niger's presidential palace in its capital city of Niamey, and the main infrastructures of the country potentially threatened by the impending Nigerian-led military action.

With a personnel capacity of about 230,000 men, neighboring Nigeria is expected to contribute far more soldiers to the operation against Niger than any other country in the bloc. However the two countries with the strongest armies in AFRICA, Egypt and Algeria have warned against any military intervention in Niger, and vowed they’ll not stand idly and let that happen.

Reportedly, the morale of Niger’s military personnel is at an all time high right now, given that nearly the entire population of Niger are in support of the military and thousands have signed up to fight with the Russian volunteer force, Wagner, in defense of their homeland.

DJ, ECOWAS/Nigeria may have decided NOT to end up fighting a neo-colonial war in the interest of France, US, EU to go on stealing gold and uranium from Africa...

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRICS#Countries_that_have_applied_for_membership[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRICS#Countries_that_have_applied_for_membership Senegal, Nigeria -both in ECOWAS- also want to join BRICS...Even Morocco !!! now wants to become part of BRICS !!!

Tomorrow-august 22- there will be a major meeting of BRICS in South Africa...Over 70 countries may show up at that meeting...

One of the BRICS "talking points" will be an alternative for western currencies in international trade...By now a lot of potential BRICS members go for using their own currecy...

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CFA_franc[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CFA_franc ;

The CFA franc (Frenchfranc CFA[fʁɑ̃ seɛfɑ], Franc of the Financial Community of Africa, originally Franc of the French Colonies in Africa, or colloquially franc; abbreviation: F.CFA) is the name of two currencies, the West African CFA franc, used in eight West African countries, and the Central African CFA franc, used in six Central African countries.[1] Although separate, the two CFA franc currencies have always been at parity and are effectively interchangeable. The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc. On 22 December 2019, it was announced that the West African currency would be reformed and replaced by an independent currency to be called Eco.[2]

Both CFA francs have a fixed exchange rate (peg) to the euro: €1 = F.CFA 655.957 exactly, and member countries deposited half of their foreign exchange reserves with the French Treasury.[3] The currency has been criticized for restricting the sovereignty of the African member states, effectively putting their monetary policy in the hands of the European Central Bank. Others argue that the CFA "helps stabilize the national currencies of Franc Zone member-countries and greatly facilitates the flow of exports and imports between France and the member-countries".[4]

In May 2020, the French National Assembly agreed to end the French engagement in the West African CFA franc, including the foreign reserve deposit requirements. The West African CFA franc is expected to be renamed as the "Eco" in the near future.[5][6]

DJ...countries are kept poor a.o. via currencies and foreign mining companies-de facto stealing resources....A lot of countries end up paying "protection money" (most of the time to western countries) to protect foreign mining companies against "jihadi/rebel-groups" also linked to -the same- foreign exploiters...

BRICS could bring change here...with major investments in infra structure and education...In practice it also may mean a lot of students will study in Russia, China, India...no longer in English or French...The present elite in Africa/Latin America did "study" in NATO countries...in fact getting programmed that what was good for the NATO-west was good for their country...

So poverty often only did get worse...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: August 23 2023 at 2:25am

[url]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kn05OpE2HCo[/url] or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kn05OpE2HCo Military Summary; Wagner forces working on a "line" stretching from Mali in the west via Niger, Chad to Central African Republic. Also a Russian delegation visited Libya to talk on cooperation with Hafter-one of the Libyan leaders (in a NATO caused civil war...) 

Algeria did tell France it would NOT allow the French air force to fly over Algeria for strikes against Niger. 

DJ-Egypt is also "close" to Russia...So NATO may be limited in what it can do. US and France (a.o.) have (semi-colonial) military in the region...Try to increase chaos. 

My view is Africa has had more than enough of western exploitation. ECOWAS once may have been a western colonial tool-it may now become an instrument for BRICS to stop the west from stealing gold, uranium, oil, etc. from Africa. 

The EU made a "refugee-deal" with its Tunesia dictator so Tunesia would send black Africans into the Libyan desert (to die...) Russia may "work" with Libyan groups on the Tunesia-Libya border...(In the past several countries used refugees as a weapon...Türkiye, Belarus a.o. So should we expect African refugees being "imported" into the EU/UK by Wagner ? Or does BRICS offer a future for Africa ?) 

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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